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detection

detection   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
109 words

...The ears detect sound energies down to the random motion of air molecules (10 -16 watts, or 0.00003 dyn/cm 2 ). Sensitivity is always limited by the fact that energies cannot be less than Planck's quantum of action, and because all detectors have residual random activity, or ‘noise’, against which signals must be discriminated. (Published 1987) Barlow, H. (2001). ‘ The exploitation of regularities in the environment and the brain ’. Behavioural and Brain Sciences ,...

intelligence differences

intelligence differences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,455 words

...total GCSE performance score (0.74), art and design (0.45), business studies (0.56), creative arts (0.53), design and technology (0.51), English language (0.68), English literature (0.63), French (0.66), geography (0.68), German (0.59), history (0.65), information technology (0.47), mathematics (0.76), physical education (0.54), science (0.72), Spanish (0.61). The correlations with the non-verbal section for the CAT test, which involves neither verbal nor numerical skills, were still high, typically being about 0.1 lower for each subject. Therefore, in...

signal detection theory

signal detection theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,028 words
Illustration(s):
2

...model as criterion is varied in Fig. S1 is plotted in Fig. S2. The HR and FAR produced by Cj and the Lenient criterion in Fig. S1 are marked on the ROC. The Lenient and Very Strict criteria would result in performance very close to (1,1) and (0,0), respectively, and d ′ would be unmeasurable. Also, with criteria as extreme as this, forced‐choice responding, which is normally considered to give criterion‐free measures, would have performance near chance when d ′ was otherwise measurable Fig. S2 . Receiver operating characteristic (ROC). It plots how Hits...

filling‐in

filling‐in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,908 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bar crosses over the blind spot ( Fiorani et al. 1992 ), and cells in V2 have been designated as the neural *correlates of brightness filling‐in ( Roe et al. 2005 ). Moreover, both for brightness ( Rossi and Paradiso 2003 ) and textural filling‐in ( Spillman and De Weerd 2003 ), psychophysical investigations have unveiled a temporal dynamics as of a gradual filling‐in process, and, in the case of brightness, this has been measured as having a roughly constant speed of 0.15–0.4 m/s ( Rossi and Paradiso 2003 ). The discovery of empirical...

colour vision: brain mechanisms

colour vision: brain mechanisms   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,323 words

...define luminance, L , as L = 0.3R + 0.59G + 0.11B (1) The weightings given to the R , G , and B signals are commensurate with the relative contributions of the three primaries to luminance. We can now derive two ‘colour difference equations’: R − L = 0.7R − 0.59G − 0.11B (2) and B − L = −0.3 R −0.59 G + 0.89 B (3) Equations (2) and (3) give ‘chrominance’ information. If R = G = B , then both chrominance signals are zero. Since the viewer's visual acuity is less for colour, less bandwidth need be used to transmit (2) and (3) than (1) (Sims 1969 )....

attractor networks

attractor networks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,603 words
Illustration(s):
2

...’. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 5. Rumelhart, D. E. , Smolensky, P. , McClelland, J. L. , and Hinton, G. E. (1986). ‘Schemata and sequential thought processes in PDP models.’ In Rumelhart, D. E. et al. (eds) Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition , Vol. 2. Searle, J. R. (1992). The Rediscovery of the Mind . Sergent, C. and Dehaene, S. (2004). ‘ Is consciousness a gradual phenomenon? Evidence for an allornone bifurcation during the attentional blink ’. Psychological Science , 15. Smolensky, P. (1988)....

flash‐lag effect

flash‐lag effect   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,439 words
Illustration(s):
3

...downward arrows depict transmission of signals from the retinal ganglion cells to cortex with a delay of 0.1 s. (b) An observer viewing a moving tennis ball (motion in the direction of arrow) should perceive the ball as occupying the position it actually occupied up to 0.1 s ago. Outline circle depicts perceived position of the tennis ball. For a tennis ball travelling at 30 mph (50 km/h), the lag, known as the ds‐error, should be more than 4 feet (1.2 m). The frequently quoted value of the flash‐lag effect in time units is 80 ms ( Nijhawan 1994 ); the...

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...arts and to aesthetic values is limited. Art has a greater degree of freedom than science. Even if the scientist elucidates certain principles and limits of the visual perception of form, science cannot dictate to the artist what he should do. The frontiers of the visual arts must be set by the creative artist himself. See also art as perceptual experience . Richard Jung Arnheim, R. (1956). Art and Visual Perception . Gombrich, E. H. (1962). Art and Illusion (2nd edn.). Helmholtz, H. von (1871–3). Optisches über Malerei . Hering, E. (1878). Zur...

psychometric testing

psychometric testing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,045 words

...testing . Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. The scientific testing of human abilities and characteristics began with the Chan dynasty in ancient China when the emperor introduced a system of assessment for the promotion of civil servants ( Wainer 2000 ). It was recognized that a few measures taken over a short period of time were able to predict future behaviour. Subsequent influences arose from the development of psychiatry and psychophysics in the 19th century, culminating in the seminal work of Francis Galton , often...

action, scientific perspectives

action, scientific perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,815 words
Illustration(s):
1

...106. Ramachandran, V. S. and Rogers‐Ramachandran, D. (1996). ‘ Synaesthesia in phantom limbs induced with mirrors ’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences , 263. Sirigu, A. , Duhamel, J. R. , Cohen, L. , Pillon, B. , Dubois, B. , and Agid, Y. (1996). ‘ The mental representation of hand movements after parietal cortex damage ’. Science , 273. ——, Daprati, E. , Pradat‐Diehl, P. , Franck, N. , and Jeannerod, M. (1999). ‘ Perception of self‐generated movement following left parietal lesion ’. Brain , 122. Spence,...

information integration theory

information integration theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,279 words

...part of our brain. Giulio Tononi Massimini, M. , Ferrarelli, F. , Huber, R. , Esser, S. K. , Singh, H. and Tononi, G. (2005), ‘ Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep ’. Science , 309. ——, ——,  Esser, S. K. et al. (2007). ‘ Triggering sleep slow waves by transcranial magnetic stimulation ’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA , 104. Tononi, G. (2004). ‘ An information integration theory of consciousness ’. BMC Neuroscience , 5. —— and Sporns, O. (2003). ‘ Measuring information integration ’. BMC...

philosophy and the study of consciousness

philosophy and the study of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,248 words

...both in abstraction from specific empirical findings and in relation to other relevant theories. Work in philosophy is thus often continuous with that in the relevant sciences, differing largely in focus and emphasis. These continuities enhance the contributions each makes to the other, as well as their joint contributions to our overall understanding of consciousness. 1. Traditional theories 2. First‐order theories 3. Global workspace and the function of consciousness 4. Inner sense 5. Other higher‐order theories 6. Qualitative consciousness 7. ...

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