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minority groups

minority groups   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,451 words

...the Ph.D. in mathematics in 1991 , there were 10 African Americans, 6 Hispanics, and 2 Native Americans. In science and engineering, just 2.6 percent of Ph.D.s went to African Americans (10 percent of the U.S. work force), 1.8 percent to Hispanics (7 percent of the work force), and 0.4 percent to Native Americans (1 percent of the work force). The composition of university faculties tells the same story. Walter Massey , former director of the National Science Foundation, professor of physics at Brown University, and an African American, noted that the...

mechanics

mechanics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,233 words

...out of which tumbled the result that in perfectly elastic collisions the quantity mv 2 remains constant. Huygens regarded this result as a notable corollary of his collision rules; to Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz it suggested the universal conservation of vis viva , a force measured by mv 2 , to add to the already known conservation of “directed motion.” This confirmation of force as a metaphysical reality led Leibniz to the creation in 1691 of a new science of force, which he baptized dynamics . It led in turn to a protracted argument in the...

Bits and qubits

Bits and qubits   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,881 words

...give you four numbers, 00, 01, 10 and 11, which are the binary-number equivalents of good old 0, 1, 2 and 3. Three ambiguities give eight numbers, and so on, until with 50 you have a million billion numbers represented simultaneously in the quantum computer. In theory the machine can compute with all of them at the same time. Such quantum spookiness spooks the spooks. The world's secret services are still engaged in the centuries-old contest between code-makers and code-breakers. There are new concepts called quantum one-time pads for a supposedly...

orbit

orbit   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
683 words

...center of the galaxy . Once again, Kepler's third law could be used. This time, it provided the mass of our galaxy interior to the sun's orbit. Forest Ray Moulton , An Introduction to Celestial mechanics , 2nd rev. ed. (1914). Fred Hoyle , Astronomy (1962). Eric M. Rogers , Astronomy for the Inquiring Mind: The Growth and Use of Theory in Science (1982). Bruce Stephenson , Kepler's Physical Astronomy (1987). David W....

clone

clone   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
758 words

...cells might be clonable if the nucleus was taken from cells in the right condition. Keith Campbell , an embryologist whom he hired to assist him in the research, suggested that cells in the G0 condition—a state of quiescence they enter when near starvation—might do. They confirmed this possibility in March 1996 when two lambs were born that they had cloned, using the G0 approach, from differentiated embryo cells. They then attempted to clone a sheep from adult udder cells. The effort produced 277 failures and one success—a sheep, born in July , that they...

Cavendish, Henry

Cavendish, Henry (1731–1810)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,204 words

...his reports and to meditations on the meaning of “replication” in science. One answer to the doubters is that Coulomb perfected his technique over many years and that the coordination of eye and hand acquired from his long engineering practice is not a common talent of historians. A. J. Berry , Henry Cavendish (1960). C. Stewart Gillmor , Coulomb and the Evolution of Physics and Engineering in 18th Century France (1971). J. L. Heilbron , Electricity in the 17th and 18th Centuries (1979; 2d ed. 1999). Christine Blondel and Matthias Dörries , eds., ...

Biodiversity

Biodiversity  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...and then anything from 0 to 31 other species chosen at random from a list of grassland species, to represent different levels of biodiversity. Among 200 different combinations of plant species tested, the selection was in some cases deliberately tweaked to ensure the presence of a nitrogen-fixing legume to fertilize the plot. The experimenters judged the above-ground productivity of each plot by the dry weight of plant tissue harvested from a height more than five centimetres from the soil. They published their results in Science in 1999 , under the names...

infinity

infinity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,068 words

...in the early 1900s by Henri Lebesgue and William Henry Young ; it not only played an important role in mathematical analysis itself but also came into probability theory, statistical and quantum mechanics, and thence to other sciences. Cantor found that some sets had an infinitude of members greater than that of the integers 1, 2, 3,…; for example, the set of real numbers, or of points on the straight line. He also found that there were “no fewer” points on a line L of finite length than in the square, or cube, or constructed upon L. Cantor was shocked by...

fire and heat

fire and heat   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,010 words

...of a weight W of (say) mercury at temperature T with an equal weight of ice-cold water produces a final temperature Q , and w is the amount of water at temperature T that, if mixed with ice-cold water, also results in the temperature Q , then Q = ( wT + Q ×0)/( w + W ), where 0 represents freezing on the temperature scale of Wilcke's countryman Anders Celsius . From the last expression, w / W = specific heat of mercury = Q /( T − Q ). Unlike Black, Wilcke did not keep his concept of heat latent. In several publications, he discussed heat as...

elements, chemical

elements, chemical   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,368 words

...were convinced that the careful measurements of Jean-Servais Stas demonstrated that atomic weights could not be multiples of 1 or 0.5 or 0.25 as a fundamental protyle. In 1860 approximately 140 chemists convened at an international chemistry congress in Karlsruhe to discuss standardization of conventions for atomic weights and molecular formulas. Charles Frédéric Gerhardt 's system, in which water has the composition H 2 O (H = 1, C = 12, and O = 16), was widely adopted. During the era, scientists including Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner , Alexandre-Émile...

elementary particles

elementary particles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,892 words

...algorithms for extracting finite contributions from every order of perturbation theory—was proved by Gerard 't Hooft in his dissertation in 1972 . The status of the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory changed dramatically in consequence. As Sidney Coleman noted in his article in Science describing the award of the Nobel Prize to Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg in 1978 , “’t Hooft's kiss transformed Weinberg's frog into an enchanted prince.” As presently described, a common mechanism underlies the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Each is mediated by...

cold and cryonics

cold and cryonics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,068 words

...showed that the resistances after reaching a minimum started increasing again. In 1911 Kamerlingh Onnes measured the resistance of platinum and that of pure mercury at helium temperatures. At 4.19°K the value of the resistance dropped abruptly and became 0.0001 times that of solid mercury at 0°C. Impurities did not affect the superconductivity of mercury, but a high magnetic field could destroy it. The first successful quantum mechanical theory of electrical conduction, proposed by Felix Bloch ( 1928 ), predicted that superconductivity was impossible....

Earth

Earth  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...Voyager 2 did, Voyager 1 having been diverted for a special inspection of Saturn's moon Titan. The Voyager project scientist, who later became director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was Ed Stone of Caltech. ‘A 12-year journey to Neptune,’ Stone recalled, ‘was such a technical challenge that NASA committed to only a four-year mission to Jupiter and Saturn, with Voyager 2 as a backup to assure a close flyby of Saturn's rings and its large moon Titan. With the successful Voyager 1 flyby in late 1980 , NASA gave us the okay to send Voyager 2 on the even...

Human ecology

Human ecology   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,236 words

...the poor should want to sell mahogany, ivory or heroin, when they couldn't get a decent price for their coffee or sugar. ‘Optimism is obligatory,’ the science writer Ritchie Calder of Edinburgh declared. Ever since Malthus, the doctrine of inevitable scarcity has been used to justify keeping the poor poor. In the mid-20th century there was widespread hope about a better world to be made with the aid of science and technology. The expectation was that the human ecosystem could soon be so improved as to abolish hunger, infectious disease, illiteracy and...

Sun's interior

Sun's interior  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...to explain the Sun's magnetism. Instead he supposed that an ancient magnetic field finds its way out from the deep interior into the convection zone. As indirect evidence he cited a slight excess in the speed of sound measured by SOHO in the supposed dynamo layer. It was only 0.2 per cent higher than expected, but he attributed the discrepancy to a stirring action that left the region with less helium gas than predicted by the theory. This is not helium made in the nuclear reactions in the core of the Sun, which stays down there, but primordial helium,...

education in the sciences

education in the sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...careers in science? What keeps them interested? Table 2. Distributions of Percentages of Students Planning Further Study in 19 Selected Countries by Science Area Area 5th Percentile 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile 95th Percentile Biological Sciences 2.2 3.5 4.0 5.2 6.5 Chemistry 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.0 Computer & Information Science 2.9 4.3 5.4 8.2 11.8 Earth Science 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.0 Engineering 3.9 7.2 9.1 12.1 14.8 Health Occupations 1.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 8.1 Health Sciences 3.7 5.1 8.8 11.5 14.7 Mathematics 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 Physics 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 2.2 Table...

women and minorities in the scientific community

women and minorities in the scientific community   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...2001 All Fields 1,257,648 Percentage of S&E All science and engineering (S&E) 400,206 Male 197,623 49.4 Female 202,583 50.6 White 267,848 66.9 Asian/Pacific Islander 36,398 9.1 Black 33,290 8.3 Hispanic 28,321 7.1 Native American/Alaskan Native 2,796 0.7 Source: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, 2004 , Table C-4, “Bachelor's Degrees, by Sex and Field: 1994–2001 ,” and Table C-6, “Bachelor's Degrees, by Field, Citizenship, and Race/Ethnicity: 1994–2001 .” Table 2. Doctoral Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...that approximately four in ten American scientists (39.3 percent) continued to embrace a prayer-answering God, whereas 38 percent believed in an afterlife. A follow-up survey of the country’s most distinguished scientists (all fellows of the elite National Academy of Sciences) revealed that only 7.0 percent believed in a personal God and 7.9 percent in personal immortality ( Larson and Witham, 1997 , 1998 ; see also Larson and Witham, 1999 ). One of the most interesting—and perhaps significant—recent developments has been the embrace of an amorphous...

science policy, development of

science policy, development of   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...reinvested in R&D (anything from 0.5 to 2.5 percent in those days; today 3 percent or higher is considered a good benchmark). The chain of events from new ideas and discovery of physical laws to marketable products or commodities defined a linear model of innovation. Recommendations to member governments included norms for establishing scientific advisory bodies to government. Several debates followed. The Minerva debate (named after the journal that carried it) concerned criteria for choosing between different fields of science. The director of a big physics...

family, the, and science

family, the, and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Selected Notes and Notables . American Society of Animal Science. 2002. http://www.asas.org/jas/symposia/esupp2/Footehist.pdf. Foucault, Michel . The History of Sexuality . Vol. 1: An Introduction. Translated by Robert Hurley . New York: Pantheon Books, 1978. Georgia Reproductive Specialists. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF-ET). 2003. http://www.ivf.com/ivffaq.html. Gladue, Brian A. , Richard Green , and Ronald E. Hellman . “ Neuroendocrine Response to Estrogen and Sexual Orientation. ” Science 225 (1984): 1496–1499. Grantly, Dick Read . Childbirth...

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