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Terskol Observatory

Terskol Observatory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Observatory An observatory at an altitude of 3150 m on the southern slopes of Mt Elbrus in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia, jointly owned and operated by the Ukrainian and Russian National Academies of Sciences. Its main telescope is a 2-m reflector opened in 1995 . Other instruments include the 0.65-m Large Horizontal Solar Telescope, opened in 1989 and rebuilt in 2000 . http://www.terskol.com Official observatory...

Hinode

Hinode   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...energy in flares, coronal mass ejections, and coronal heating. It carries an 0.5-m Solar Optical Telescope ( SOT ) observing in the 388–668 nm range, an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer ( EIS ) observing in the wavelength ranges 17–21 nm and 25–29 nm, and a high-resolution grazing-incidence X-Ray Telescope ( XRT ) observing between 0.2 and 20 nm. Hinode was a successor to the Japanese Yohkoh solar observatory. http://hinode.nao.ac.jp/index_e.shtml Hinode science centre website. http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/e/enterp/missions/hinode/index.shtml ...

Image Science Subsystem

Image Science Subsystem   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Image Science Subsystem Major remote sensing instrument on the Cassini spacecraft that captures images in visible, infrared , and ultraviolet light . It consists of two framing cameras: a narrow-angle reflecting telescope with a focal length of 2 000 mm and a field of view of 0.35 degrees; and a wide-angle refracting telescope with a focal length of 200 mm and a field of view of 3.5 degrees. Each camera is outfitted with a large number of spectral filters which, taken together, span the electromagnetic spectrum from 2000 Angstroms to 1.1 microns. The...

James Webb Space Telescope

James Webb Space Telescope   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...which will be folded for launch and opened when in space. JWST will be positioned at the L 2 Lagrangian point , 1.5 million km from Earth on the side away from the Sun. It is designed to operate at infrared wavelengths, to study heavily redshifted light from early in the history of the Universe. A sunshield will block the Sun’s rays, keeping the four infrared instruments cool. The Near-Infrared Camera ( NIR Cam ) will take images in the wavelength range 0.6–5  μ ‎m; the Near-Infrared Spectrograph ( NIR Spec ) will collect spectra of more than 100...

Square Kilometre Array

Square Kilometre Array   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to detect every active galactic nucleus ( AGN ) out to a redshift of 6, when the Universe was less than one billion years old. It would have the sensitivity to detect television broadcasts on nearby extrasolar planets. SKA has five key science drivers: 1. The cradle of life: a search for Earth-like planets. 2. Strong field tests of gravity using pulsars and black holes : testing general relativity . 3. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetism: origin of magnetic fields in the Universe. 4. Galaxy evolution, cosmology and dark energy:...

Hubble Space Telescope

Hubble Space Telescope   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
907 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the Space Telescope Science Institute ( STScI ) in Baltimore, Maryland, responsible for conducting and coordinating science operations. The 2.4-metre reflecting telescope was deployed by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery in low-Earth orbit at an altitude of 600 kilometres in April 1990 . HST's current complement of science instruments includes three cameras, two spectrographs, and fine guidance sensors (primarily used for accurate positional observations). Because of HST's location above the Earth's atmosphere, these science instruments can produce...

Chinese Lunar Exploration Programme

Chinese Lunar Exploration Programme   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
349 words
Illustration(s):
1

...successful lander/rover mission. Launched on 2 December 2013 , Chang’e 3 landed on the Moon in northwestern Mare Imbrium 12 days later. On 14 December, the Yutu rover separated from the lander and traversed for a total of 0.114 km. The lander and rover each carried four science instruments to investigate the geology, morphology, and chemical composition of the landing area. The instruments were also designed to explore the terrestrial-lunar space environment and to make lunar-based astronomical...

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
297 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for evidence that water persisted on the surface of the planet long enough to sustain life. Launched from Cape Canaveral on 12 August 2005 , the craft arrived at Mars on 10 March 2006 , when it began imaging the Martian landscapes in unprecedented detail, to a resolution of 0.20.3 m. The orbiter is also using radar to probe underground layers for water and ice (to determine the composition and origins of surface minerals, and track changes in atmospheric water and dust) and a spectrometer to identify types of water-related minerals. Among its numerous...

Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Sloan Digital Sky Survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
1,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...which are rare, can be seen beyond a redshift z ≳0.15. By contrast, the luminous red galaxy sample is designed to be volume-limited, i.e. to be of uniform density, out to redshift z =0.38. This sample also includes additional galaxies to z ~0.5, although these high redshift galaxies do not form a complete subsample. At z <0.15, the simple linear colour cut used allows less luminous galaxies to enter the sample, hence the increase in LRG density at these low redshifts. Although the primary science driver behind the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was...

James Webb Space Telescope

James Webb Space Telescope   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
353 words
Illustration(s):
1

...instruments from direct sunlight. JWST artists impression NASA Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) —Incorporates a wide-field camera that provides narrow-band imagery with a filter that can be tuned over a wavelength range of 1.6 to 4.9 microns (with a gap between 2.6 and 3.1 microns). The JWST science goals are divided into four themes, two of which are directly relevant to cosmology . The key objective of The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization is to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the...

redshift surveys

redshift surveys   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
3,157 words
Illustration(s):
1

...range 0.17 < z < 0.55 from January 1993 to March 1995 . The main goal of CNOC1 was to measure the density parameter Ω. Galaxy cluster virial masses and total luminosities were calculated from about 1 200 cluster redshifts, and the luminosity density was estimated from 1 000 field galaxies from the same dataset. The CNOC1 survey determined a density parameter Ω = 0.19 ± 0.1, in good agreement with the currently-preferred value ( See standard cosmological model ). The CNOC2 survey observed 6 200 field galaxies in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.7 from ...

Cosmic Background Explorer satellite

Cosmic Background Explorer satellite   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
864 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Earth's atmosphere. It was realized that the only effective way to circumvent this problem would be to observe from above the Earth's atmosphere, which required a satellite observatory. The mission was designed to carry three separate instruments with different science goals, described below. Fig. 2. A schematic of the COBE satellite's orbit. As the Earth went round the Sun, the orbit precessed so as always to be perpendicular to the Earth–Sun direction, limiting the number of solar microwaves entering the instruments. Fig. 3. A pre-launch photo of one of...

cosmography

cosmography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum , around 2 microns in wavelength, using two dedicated 1.3m telescopes, one in Arizona and one in Chile. The largest sky survey to date, in terms of volume surveyed, is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This is the first project to survey a substantial fraction of the sky in the optical using digital detectors rather than photographic plates. In the X-ray part of the spectrum, the ROSAT satellite has made all-sky maps in bands at 0.25, 0.75, and 1.5 keV ( See particle physics units ). The X-ray emitters...

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