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Democratic Norms and Religion

Democratic Norms and Religion   Reference library

Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,391 words
Illustration(s):
1

...0.001) Specific indirect effects via: Confidence in institutions 0.001 (0.001) * –0.002 (0.001) ** –0.002 (0.001) ** 0.000 (0.000) –0.003 (0.001) ** Interest in politics 0.002 (0.002) 0.002 (0.001) * 0.002 (0.001) * 0.001 (0.000) 0.002 (0.001) * Direct effect of religious social behavior 0.014 (0.007) * –0.005 (0.003) –0.002 (0.003) 0.009 (0.003) ** –0.016 (0.005) ** Model fit indices: χ ‎ 2 272.200 227.536 227.46 222.962 209.154 TLI 0.946 0.988 0.967 0.972 0.979 CFI 0.982 0.965 0.989 0.991 0.936 RMSEA 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.031 0.031 AIC 9,869.615 –27,670.571...

Electoral Choice and Religion: Israel

Electoral Choice and Religion: Israel   Reference library

Asher Cohen and Menachem Lazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,436 words

...4.3% 2.1% 2.1% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% Shas 57.1% 20.0% 17.1% 2.9% 0.0% 2.9% 100.0% Ultra-Orthodox—religious Yachad, Otzma Leyisrael 47.6% 33.3% 14.3% 4.8% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% Religious Jewish Home 2.2% 42.9% 18.7% 17.6% 16.5% 2.2% 100.0% Secular–traditional Likud 1.7% 12.4% 21.6% 29.5% 34.9% 0.0% 100.0% Kulanu 0.0% 1.4% 16.2% 39.2% 43.2% 0.0% 100.0% Secular Israel Beiteinu 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 14.3% 76.2% 2.4% 100.0% Center Yesh Atid 2.8% 0.9% 5.6% 20.6% 69.2% 0.9% 100.0% Left Zionist Union 1.7% 3.4% 4.3% 17.5% 72.2% 0.9% 100.0% Meretz 0.0% 2.2% 4.4%...

Social Network Influence on Political Behavior in Religious Contexts

Social Network Influence on Political Behavior in Religious Contexts   Reference library

Christina Ladam, Ian Shapiro, and Anand Sokhey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,623 words
Illustration(s):
2

...you, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5?” 11 Figure 1 shows network averages of shared religious affiliation by the familiar tradition categories. For all respondents, the average shared portion of core networks sharing religious affiliation is 0.54 (SE = 0.01; the 0–5 scale was recoded to run 0–1), meaning that just over half of the five individuals a person thought about with this prompt shared their faith. Black Protestant respondents reported the highest level of shared religious affiliation in their networks (mean = 0.69, SE = 0.02), followed by Mormons (mean = 0.64,...

Religious Regulation: The Regulation of All Religion in a Country

Religious Regulation: The Regulation of All Religion in a Country   Reference library

Jonathan Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
6,751 words

...14.2333 b 6.7% 33.3% 60.0% By World Region Western Democracies 27 4.8519 5.000 14.8% 63.0% 22.2% Former Soviet Union 29 10.5517 15.9310 b 13.8% 17.2% 69.0% Asia 29 12.7586 16.8966 c 3.4% 31.0% 65.5% Middle East & North Africa 23 21.9565 23.3043 17.4% 17.4% 65.2% Sub-Saharan Africa 48 3.7500 6.8750 c 4.2% 25.0% 70.8% Latin America 27 5.9259 6.1852 14.8% 48.1% 70.8% By Regime Polity = 10 (most democratic) 35 4.5429 4.4857 14.3% 57.1% 28.6% Polity 7 to 9 50 6.6400 8.7000 a 14.0% 30.0% 56.0% Polity 1 to 6 37 6.2973 8.8108 10.8% 29.7% 59.5% Polity < 1 (most...

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities   Reference library

Jonathan Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,370 words

...places each on a scale of 0 to 3, creating a measure that can potentially range from 0 to 108. 2 Table 3. Religious Discrimination, 1990 and 2014 Type of Restriction N Mean Restrictions Proportion of Countries Whose Policies Changed 1990 2014 Decreased Stable Increased All Cases 183 11.1913 14.2678 c 12.6% 21.9% 65.6% By Majority Religion Catholic 44 4.8182 6.2045 b 18.2% 29.6% 52.2% Orthodox Christian 13 18.0000 24.9231 a 7.7% 0.0% 92.3% Other Christian 46 3.7391 5.8478 b 10.8% 23.9% 65.2% Muslim 50 20.8800 25.1200 c 8.0% 16.0% 76.0% Other 30 12.8667 16.3000...

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics   Reference library

Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a Jewish candidate running for vice president” (p. 284). 3 In list experiments, the difference in the number of items reported in the two groups is the key finding of the research; for instance, if respondents in the control condition report on average 2.0 items and respondents in the treatment report on average 2.4 items, researchers deduce that 40 percent of respondents in the treatment chose the experimental item. Researchers can further analyze the differences between treatment and control in varying subpopulations—for instance, testing if levels of...

Religious Regulation in Brazil

Religious Regulation in Brazil   Reference library

Claudia Cerqueira and Guadalupe Tuñón

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,906 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 1940 and 2010 , the share of Evangelicals in the population grew from 2.61% to 22.2% (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, IBGE). During the same period, the proportion of individuals affiliated with Afro-Brazilian religions has oscillated between 0.6 and 0.3% of the population (IBGE). Changes in Brazil’s religious landscape are explained in part by the opportunities and restrictions that government regulations place on religious organizations ( Finke & Iannaccone, 1993 ). 2 Regulation shapes religious competition by changing the incentives and...

Electoral Choice and Religion: Turkey

Electoral Choice and Religion: Turkey   Reference library

Ali Çarkoğlu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,921 words
Illustration(s):
4

...prayer at all) to six (daily prayers more often than once a week). TES also include a self-evaluation of religiosity from the beginning. However, the 1 to 10 scale used in 2002 was changed to 0 to 10 from 2007 onward. Moreover, as expected, prayer and self-evaluation of religiosity highly correlate impeding joint use in the same equation. 28 Figure 1 and 2 present the distributions of both variables across five elections since 2002 . There is some change in reported religious practice and self-evaluations of religiosity. As the month of Ramadan...

Secularism and Politics

Secularism and Politics   Reference library

Jeremiah J. Castle and Patrick L. Schoettmer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
12,350 words
Illustration(s):
3

...unaffiliated make up about 23% of the population, in both the 114th and 115th Congresses, only one member (Rep. Kyrsten Sinema, D-AZ) identifies as unaffiliated. In other words, despite the fact that the unaffiliated make up about 23% of the population, private seculars make up 0.2% of Congress ( Sandstrom, 2017 ). Clearly, private seculars have one of the largest disparities between population size and descriptive representation among all socio-demographic groups in the United States. Recent research offers explanations for why private seculars in the...

Electoral Choice and Religion: United States

Electoral Choice and Religion: United States   Reference library

Jeremiah J. Castle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,170 words
Illustration(s):
4

...DC: Brookings Institute Press. McDermott, M. L. (2007). Voting for Catholic candidates: The evolution of a stereotype. Social Science Quarterly , 88 (4), 953–969. McDermott, M. L. (2009). Religious stereotyping and voter support for evangelical candidates. Political Research Quarterly , 62 (2), 340–354. McLaughlin, B. , & Wise, D. (2014). Cueing God: Religious cues and voter support. Politics and Religion , 7 (2), 366–394. McTague, J. M. , & Layman, G. C. (2009). Religion, parties, and voting behavior: A political explanation of religious influence...

Protest and Religion: Christianity in the People’s Republic of China

Protest and Religion: Christianity in the People’s Republic of China   Reference library

Yu Tao

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,919 words

...and 38 million Protestants in China. In other words, the official count shows that, as of mid- 2018 , approximately 3.16% of the population of mainland China are Christian (2.73% Protestants and 0.43% Catholics). These figures are mostly consistent with those revealed by national surveys of representative samples conducted between 2008 and 2018 , which suggest that between 2.3% to 3.93% of the surveyed population are Christians ( Tao, 2012 ; Wenzel-Teuber, 2012 , 2017 ). However, the figures reported in official documents and national surveys may...

Islam and Islamic Studies in Scandinavia

Islam and Islamic Studies in Scandinavia   Reference library

Susanne Olsson and Simon Sorgenfrei

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
13,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Society , 26 (2), 141–156. van Es, M. A. (2016). Norwegian Muslim women, diffused Islamic feminism, and the politics of belonging. Nordic Journal of Religion and Society , 29 (2), 117–133. Frostböll, C. F. (2010). The use and abuse of “universal values” in the Danish cartoon controversy. European Political Science Review , 2 (3), 401–422. Gardell, M. (2010). Islamofobi . Stockholm, Sweden: Leopard. Gilliam, L. (2014). Muslimske børn i den “sekulære” danske folkeskole. Tidskrift for islamforskning , 8 (2), 1–16. Grimsrud Christensen...

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States   Reference library

Kristi Winters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,166 words

...data set, some who report a monotheistic religious affiliation go on to say they do not believe in god ( Lipka, 2016a ). Agnostic. The number of Americans self-identifying as agnostics (those who are not sure about the existence of god or gods) increased from 2.4% of all U.S. adults in 2007 to 4.0% in 2014 , according to Pew data ( Lipka, 2016a ). As with the category of atheist, which would seem to be clear-cut non-belief in a god or gods according to most definitions, the term agnostic can be used by people who might not fit a dictionary definition of...

Protest and Religion: An Overview

Protest and Religion: An Overview   Reference library

Yasemin Akbaba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,166 words

...and religion: Toward a training model of interreligious peacebuilding . Journal of Peace Research , 38 (6), 685–704. Achilov, D. (2016). Revisiting political Islam: Explaining the nexus between political Islam and contentious politics in the Arab world . Social Science Quarterly , 97 (2), 252–270. Akbaba, Y. , & Taydas, Z. (2011). Does religious discrimination promote dissent? A quantitative analysis . Ethnopolitics , 10 (3–4), 271–295. Alterman, J. B. (2015). Religious radicalism after the Arab uprisings . Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield/Center...

Religious Traditions in Politics: Catholicism

Religious Traditions in Politics: Catholicism   Reference library

Lawrence C. Reardon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
11,374 words

...describes the political and religious challenges confronting church leaders and existing studies that would be especially useful to analyze church leaders’ decisions to overcome the challenges. The Jewish Christian Church Paradigm, 33–313. The Jewish Christian Church is “time-0,” which established the initial church paradigm ( Hall, 1993 ). Jesus Christ established the long-term goals of building a new religious community with an evangelizing mission. Jesus told Peter: “You are Peter, and, on this rock, I will build my community. And the gates of the...

Religious Regulation in the United States

Religious Regulation in the United States   Reference library

Barbara A. McGraw and James T. Richardson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
13,175 words

...American workplace: The consequences of the Supreme Court decision in EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch . Journal of Law, Religion, and State , 5 (1), 25–47. Katcoff v. Marsh, 755 F.2d 223 (2nd Cir. 1985). Retrieved from https://casetext.com/case/katcoff-v-marsh Kettell, S. (2012). Thematic review: Religion and the big society: A match made in heaven? Policy & Politics , 40 (2), 281–296. Lakin, J. (2011). Atheists in foxholes: Examining the current state of religious freedom in the United States military . First Amendment Law Review , 9 (3), 713–748...

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria   Reference library

Yahia H. Zoubir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
15,859 words

...change? Middle East Policy, 19 (2), 66–83. Zoubir, Y. , & Aghrout, A. (2016). Algeria: Reforms without change? In Y. Zoubir & G. White (Eds.), North African politics: Change and continuity (pp. 145–155). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Zoubir, Y. H. (1994). Algeria’s multi-dimensional crisis: The story of a failed state-building process. Journal of Modern African Studies, 32 (4), 741–747. Zoubir, Y. H. (1995). Stalled democratization of an authoritarian regime: The case of Algeria. Democratization, 2 (2), 109–139. Zoubir, Y. H. (2009). Reformist...

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