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malachite

malachite  

Mineral, Cu2CO3(OH)2; sp. gr. 3.9–4.0; hardness 3.5–4.0; monoclinic; bright green; pale green streak; in fibrous condition with a silky lustre, crystals with adamantine or vitreous lustre; crystals ...
computer

computer  

Any device capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined manner. The definition of the operations is called the program. An analog computer performs computations by manipulating ...
Social Science on Religion and Nature

Social Science on Religion and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,827 words

...0.303 0.395 0.339 Partial 0.274 0.362 0.303 –All correlations significant at p < 0.001 –Partial correlations controlled for demographics (age, education, gender, income), political orientation, and theological fundamentalism Table 2. Linear Regression Results Environmental Self-Identification Environmental Issues Concern Proenvironmental Behavior Beta R 2 R 2 Total Beta R 2 R 2 Total Beta R 2 R 2 Total 1. Demographic Characteristics 0.016 0.023 0.020  Age 0.112** 0.128*** –  Education – – –  Gender – – −0.062*  Income 0.058* – – 2. Political Orientation 0...

Technology and Applied Sciences

Technology and Applied Sciences   Reference library

Hassan Radoine and Aaron Segal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,516 words

...on average less than 0.4 percent of their gross national product on research, in comparison with a world average of 2.3 percent. This statistic reflects a huge gap to be bridged, an undertaking requiring deliberate, long-term policies. The problem is systemic, and quite important: The ability of Islamic countries to catch up to the West in science and technology in fact presupposes changes in their social and political structures. In order to forge a new cultural and political environment that would foster the development of science and technology, the...

Sundials

Sundials   Reference library

Atilla Bir and Mustafa Kaçar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,108 words
Illustration(s):
3

...History of Science, Multicultural Science in the Ottoman Empire , pp. 91–105. Belgium: Brepols, 2003. Meyer, Wolfgang . İstanbul’daki Güneş Saatleri . Istanbul: Sandoz yayınları, 1985. Muhtar, Gazi Ahmet . Riyaz ül-Muhtar: Mirat-ül Mikat ve el-Edvar . Cairo: Bulak Matbaası, 1885. Schoy, Carl . Die Gnomonik der Araber . Hamburg: Die Geschichte der Zeitmessung und der Uhren, 1913 (reprint, Berlin: de Gruyter, 1923). Ünver, Süheyl . Sur les cadrans horizontaux et verticaux de Turquie . Paris: Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences, 1954....

Ecosophy T

Ecosophy T   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,261 words

...be considered a T0 uttered by a (second) person P, a point of departure formulation. We may immediately ask P whether T0 is to be considered a human assertion, and if so, whether what is said is meant to be interpreted as a human assertion and therefore as fallible. It is likely that P will answer that he is not fallible when uttering T0. Compare the sentence sometimes said to have been uttered by Socrates that he knows nothing. In general, I use the signs “T1” and “T2” for two conflicting interpretations of T0. But the sentences T1 and T2 may be considered...

Cosmological Science, Modern

Cosmological Science, Modern   Reference library

Nidhal Guessoum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,271 words

...Science, Modern Cosmology became a modern science in the first few decades of the twentieth century. In fact, one can point to the year 1915 when cosmology was put on firm mathematical foundations. That year, Albert Einstein ( 1879–1955 ) published his theory of general relativity, a geometric conception and description of gravity, one which, unlike Newton’s theory of gravity, could apply to vast spaces and times, up to and including the entire universe. The fundamental equation in that theory was quickly solved by Einstein himself and afterward...

Rehob

Rehob   Reference library

Amihai Mazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of at least three tiers of hives in each row. In each row the number of preserved hives differs, yet altogether more than 30 hives were preserved; and the total number of hives in the apiary is estimated as between 100 and 200. The cylindrical hives (1.3 ft [0.4 m] in diameter, ca. 2.3 ft [0.7 m] long, walls ca. 1.6 in [4 cm] thick) were made of unfired mud mixed with straw. One side of the cylinder was closed and had a small hole that enabled the bees to fly in and out, while the other side was closed by a portable lid made of mud and equipped with a...

Neo-Paganism in Ukraine

Neo-Paganism in Ukraine   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,144 words

...descendants of prehistoric “Aryans.” Ukrainian neo-paganism and native faith finds its main base of adherents among nationally oriented ethnic Ukrainians of higher than average educational levels. Sociologists suggest there are over 90,000 Ukrainian neo-pagans and ridnovirs (or 0.2 percent of the population), though active community membership appears much smaller. There is a broader interest in topics related to paganism and Ukrainian prehistory, and in the revival of folk calendar customs connected to pre-Christian practices (such as the midwinter Koliada...

Khwārizmī, al-

Khwārizmī, al-   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Oaks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,714 words

...to x 2 ; and ʿadad mufrad (simple number). Like other algebraists, al-Khwārizmī more frequently uses the word shayʾ (thing) in place of jidhr for the first degree unknown, and “simple numbers” are often counted in dirhams, a silver coin. Next come the classification and solutions of the six canonical equations of degrees one and two. Only positive numbers were acknowledged in medieval mathematics, and the solutions to simplified equations follow a numerical recipe on the coefficients. Thus instead of our single a x 2 + b x + c = 0 , al-Khwārizmī...

Laws of Ur-Namma

Laws of Ur-Namma   Reference library

Claus Wilcke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,882 words

...tenants not cultivating leased fields or causing field damage by water must compensate the owner (§§39’–41’). §42’ decrees a two-shekel fee per bùr (ca. 62,400 m 2 or 15.91 acres) for a watered field added to the rent of two-thirds of the yield. §43’ puts yearly (?) wages for cultivating a field at one (?) shekel. A lacuna follows. §a1 and b0 are incomplete. §b1 then norms rental fees for oxen. §§b2–3 decree an unmarried daughter’s heirship in absence of male offspring, regulate the inheritance of an additional daughter, and let the (father’s) work gang share...

Hausa

Hausa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,743 words

...treadle operated horizontal loom to make long, narrow strips of cloth. These are then sewn edge to edge to produce wider material for tailoring into such garments as wrappers, gowns, trousers and turbans. Women weave on a vertical loom, producing a broader cloth some 0.5 m wide and 2 to 3 m long. Women’s cloths are sewn together to make women’s and girls’ turbans and wrappers. Women weave the most elaborate decoration. In addition to varying the color of warp and weft, they inlay designs during the weaving process. Motifs include schematic...

Malaysia

Malaysia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
10,223 words
Illustration(s):
2

... (Kuala Lumpur, 1993) IV. Sculpture . About 90 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur is a group of menhirs on the site of the Keramat Sungai Udang (Saint of Prawn) River that are of a high order of aesthetic plasticity. The Sword Stone (2.52×0.66×0.32 m) has a stylized human form and the word “Allah” carved in relief. The Rudder Stone (1.89×1.12×0.38 m) bears a landscape in low relief with mythical animals in curvilinear form echoing the elegant shape of the stone. Nearby is a square-sectioned sandstone pillar that marks the grave of Shaykh Ahmad Mokhtar Ramli Ibni Marfu...

Tent

Tent   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,733 words
Illustration(s):
4

...varies from region to region. Among the Al Murrah in southern Saudi Arabia, one is used for a tent 6.0×2.8 m, two for one 11.0×3.3 m, and four for one of 20.0×4.3 m. Important sheikhs may have tents with five, seven or even nine main poles: von Oppenheim cites a Shammar example of 35×15 paces ( c. 28×12 m), with poles of c. 3.5 m. The more actively nomadic tribes regard very large tents as an impediment. The normal height of the central poles is c. 2 m. Props with forked tops, about 500 mm shorter, are ranged along the front and back edges opposite the...

Hippos

Hippos   Reference library

Arthur Segal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,336 words

...have been excavated. The street, which extends from the forum in the direction of the east gate, was 13.8 ft (4.2 m) wide. It was paved carefully with basalt flagstones placed obliquely and lined on both sides by monolithic columns made of gray granite, originating in Aswan, Egypt. The scores of columns that once stood along the street and lay strewn upon its surface were of uniform measurement with a height of 15 ft (4.6 m), a base diameter of 2 ft (0.6 m), and a weight of about 4.1 tons (3.7 metric tons). The columns were mounted on Attic bases that were not...

Population and Consumption – Contemporary Religious Responses

Population and Consumption – Contemporary Religious Responses   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,965 words

...is too simple, for there are increasing numbers of well-off people in developing countries such as India and China who consume at the same unsustainable level as those in developed countries. Also, although consuming less per capita, Asia's 3.2 billion people consume more of the Earth's resources than the 0.3 billion people in North America. What religions think about population and consumption is important for it is clear that religions can and do shape people's attitudes to nature, to fertility, and to the just sharing of the Earth's resources. It is...

Contemporary Jewish Religious Movements

Contemporary Jewish Religious Movements   Reference library

Elliot N. Dorff, Michael J. Broyde, Mark Goldfeder, and Mark Washofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,273 words

...in the United States, which is home to the largest community of Reform Jews today by far. “Biblical law,” for present purposes, will refer to the entirety of the Jewish legal tradition ( halakha ) the bulk of which is formulated in the literature of the rabbis (or “sages,” ca. 0–500 c.e. ) and in subsequent commentary upon that literature. Although Jewish legal theory does distinguish between law originating in the “Bible” (i.e., in the Written Torah, primarily the Pentateuch, as well as the Oral Torah, the body of received traditions as reported by the...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...painters. Iqbal Hussain ( b. 1950 ), a controversial figure and portrait artist, is best known for his studies of prostitutes, musicians and children in the red-light district of old Lahore, where he was born and continues to reside. Madam on a Charopy (oil on board, 1.21×0.91 m, 1987 ; Washington, DC, priv. col.) captures both the intransigent personality of the subject and the emptiness of her life. Colin David ( b. 1937 ) won fame as a painter of nudes, though these were not exhibited publicly. Mohammad Asif ( b. 1945 ) painted still lifes....

Diet, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Diet, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Justin Lev-Tov

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,434 words

...and Roman periods, then using pig bones as an index fossil of ethnicity results in a contrary conclusion. Not one of the available coastal sites’ assemblages contains a greater proportion of pig bones than 5 percent. Tel Michal and Tel Bournat have pig abundances ranging from 0 to 4 percent, depending on the stratum, within the range reported by some authors as indicative of Jewish settlement in the cases of Sepphoris and Bethsaida. Tel ʾAkko registered 5 percent pig bones. Evidence from the coastal area in this period therefore points to a meat diet...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
48,691 words
Illustration(s):
10

...surface of the design. Cross stitch (Tajik iroki ) was widespread in the mountains, while it was used to decorate robes in Bukhara and Shahr-i Sabz. Embroidery was used to decorate furnishings, clothing and ceremonial objects. Large wall hangings ( sūzanī ; usually 3.5×2.5 m and 2.0×1.5 m) were made of embroidered panels, occasionally done by different hands, sewn together (see fig. 8). Embroidery was also used for blanket- and cushion-covers, hearth-covers ( sandalpush ), prayer mats ( dzhoynamoz ) and other decorative items. Embroidery was obligatory...

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