You are looking at 1-20 of 23 entries  for:

  • All: Science 2.0 x
clear all

View:

malachite

malachite  

Mineral, Cu2CO3(OH)2; sp. gr. 3.9–4.0; hardness 3.5–4.0; monoclinic; bright green; pale green streak; in fibrous condition with a silky lustre, crystals with adamantine or vitreous lustre; crystals ...
computer

computer  

Any device capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined manner. The definition of the operations is called the program. An analog computer performs computations by manipulating ...
Rhodes, Harold B

Rhodes, Harold B (1910)   Reference library

Hugh Davies

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
710 words

...piano section. Developed from Harold Rhodes’s earlier electric pianos, which had rods or tines instead of strings, the Rhodes has lengths of tunable thin steel wire, which are struck by hammers; Rhodes originally used piano wire of 2 mm (0.075″) diameter, but later replaced it with wire that tapers from 2.5 mm (0.1″ ) to 1.5 mm (0.06″). The wire forms one tine of a structure resembling a tuning-fork, the other tine of which is a longer, flat ‘tone bar’, tuned to reinforce and sustain the vibrations of the wire; initially the bar was straight and made of cast...

Robotic instruments

Robotic instruments   Reference library

Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,281 words

...with art in 2007. Previously known for animal-inspired robots such as the SmartBird and AquaPenguin, Festo developed a self-playing version of a string quartet with drum as ‘Sound Machines 1.0’, and a self-playing string quintet, ‘Sound Machines 2.0’, comprising novel types of two violins, a viola, a cello, and a double bass. Each instrument of Sound Machines 2.0 is actually a single string modulated electrically for the correct pitch; a pneumatic hammer vibrates the string, which sounds through a 40-watt loudspeaker. The quintet can listen to a melody...

Meantone

Meantone   Reference library

Mark Lindley

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,000 words

...concords, measured in cents 4ths major 3rds major 6ths wolf 5th ⅓-comma meantone 7 −7 0 56 2⁄7-comma meantone 6 −3 3 44 ¼-comma meantone 5½ 0 5½ 36 2⁄9-comma meantone 5 2 7 29 ⅕-comma meantone 4½ 4½ 9 24 ⅙-comma meantone 4 6 10 19½ equal temperament 2 14 16 no wolf Pythagorean intonation 0 21½ 21½ −23½ A negative number means that the interval is smaller than pure. For comparison the equivalent figures are included...

Pitch

Pitch   Reference library

Bruce Haynes and Peter Cooke

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
12,490 words

...of Italians such as Giuseppe Sammartini and their instruments at A–1 and A+0. In the period 1730–70 both new Consort-pitch at Q–2 ( a′ ≈ 423) and A+0 ( a′ ≈ 435) began to appear in woodwinds. By 1770 there were almost no woodwinds at the older Consort-pitch (Q–3); Q–2 was still present, but most woodwinds were at A+0 (which was by then common in Venice, Paris, Vienna, and much of Germany). Only organs retained the last vestige of the Quire-pitch grid, the majority being tuned to Q–2. (vii) Classical pitches, 1765–1830. By the last part of the 18th...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, Carleen M. Hutchins, Daniel W. Martin, Stephen Birkett, Anne Beetem Acker, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Robert W. Pyle, Thomas D. Rossing, and Johan Sundberg

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
23,637 words
Illustration(s):
20

...by the required amount. On the tablā , five harmonic partials originate from nine normal modes of vibration, several of which have the same frequencies. The fundamental tone is from the (0,1) mode; the 2nd harmonic is from the (1,1) mode; the (2,1) and (0,2) modes provide the 3rd harmonic; the (3,1) and (1,2) modes supply the 4th harmonic; and the (4,1), (0,3), and (2,2) modes contribute to the 5th harmonic. In double-headed drums, such as the snare drum and the bass drum, there is considerable coupling between the two heads as they vibrate, especially at low...

Sound

Sound   Reference library

Charles Taylor

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
13,777 words
Illustration(s):
16

...attempt to provide a unit that, though based on physical measurement, bears some relationship to perceived sensation. If the ratio of two physically measured sound intensities is I 1 :I 2 , then I 1 has a level n decibels above I 2 if n = 10 log 10 (I 1 /I 2 ). Thus since log 10 2 is 0.3010, if the ratio I 1 :I 2 is 2:1, I1 is approximately 3 decibels louder than I 2 . Decibel levels can, of course, be added, so for example a sound that starts at a level of 10 dB above some fixed standard and is then amplified by a factor of two will finish up 13 dB...

acoustics

acoustics   Reference library

John Borwick

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,530 words
Illustration(s):
5

...by a musician emerges as sound, the rest being lost as heat in overcoming friction, etc. Table 2 shows the wide range of total powers radiated by typical sources. Typical power levels musical source power (watts) 75-piece orchestra ( fff ) 70 bass drum 25 pipe organ 13 cymbals 10 trombone 0.6 piano 0.4 75-piece orchestra ( mf ) 0.09 flute 0.06 normal speech 0.000024 violin ( ppp ) 0.0000038 In practice, only a small fraction of the sound radiated by a source reaches the ears of any...

Just

Just   Reference library

Mark Lindley

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
3,496 words
Illustration(s):
5

...1812) H.W. Poole : ‘An Essay on Perfect Intonation in the Organ’, American Journal of Science and the Arts , 2nd ser., vol.9 (1850), 68–83, 199–216 T.P. Thompson : On the Principles and Practice of Just Intonation with a View to the Abolition of Temperament (London, 1860) H. von Helmholtz : Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungnen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik (Brunswick, 1863, 6/1913/ R ; Eng. trans., 1875 as On the Sensations of Tone , 2/1885/ R ) G. Engel : Das mathematische Harmonium (Berlin, 1881) S. Tanaka : ‘Studien im...

Aeolian harp

Aeolian harp   Reference library

Stephen Bonner

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,116 words

...(II) Melhop und seine Äolsharfen (1837)’, Das Musikinstrument , vol.42/2–3 (1993), 126–36 M. Minssen and others: Äolsharfen: der Wind als Musikant (Frankfurt, 1997; reviewed by S. Bonner in GSJ , vol.52/April (1999), 334–7) B. Wackernagel : Europäische Zupf- und Streichinstrumente, Hackbretter und Äolsharfen (Frankfurt, 1997) T.L. Hankins and R.J. Silverman : ‘The Aeolian Harp and the Romantic Quest of Nature. Regarding the Physics of Voice Generation and Resonance’, Science News (16 Dec 2000) Stephen Bonner /R ...

Bassoon

Bassoon   Reference library

William Waterhouse and James B. Kopp

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
17,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2/1615/ R ); vol.2 (Wolfenbüttel, 1618, 2/1619/ R ; Eng. trans., 1986, 2/1991); vol.3 (Wolfenbüttel, 1618, 2/1619/ R )’ Theatrum instrumentorum seu sciagraphia (Wolfenbüttel, 1620/ R ) [pictorial suppl. to Syntagma musicum , ii; Eng. trans., ibid.] M. Mersenn : Harmonicorm libri xii (Paris, 1635) M. Mersenne : Harmonie universelle (Paris, 1636–7/ R ; Eng. trans. of the books on instruments, 1957) D. Diderot and J. d’Alembert : ‘Basson de hautbois’, Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonnné des sciences, des arts et des metiers , vol.2 (Paris,...

Recording and playback devices

Recording and playback devices   Reference library

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, D.E.L. Shorter, John Borwick, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, and John Borwick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,541 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Florida State U., 1992) T. Rudolph and V. Leonard Jr : Recording in the Digital World (Boston, 2001) R. Katz : Mastering Audio, the art and the science (Burlington, 2/2007) E: Disc and tape recording R. Gelatt : The Fabulous Phonograph (Philadelphia, 1955, enlarged 2/1977) P. Wilson : The Gramophone Handbook (London, 1957) H.G.M. Spratt : Magnetic Tape Recording (London, 1958, 2/1964) O. Read and W. Welch : From Tin-Foil to Stereo (New York, 1959, enlarged 3/1994) J. Culshaw : Ring Resounding: the Recording in Stereo of ‘Der...

Computer

Computer   Reference library

Peter Manning, Anne Beetem Acker, Peter Manning, and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,238 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Musical-instrument Tones’, Physics Today , vol.22/2 (1969), 23 F.R. Moore : Computer Controlled Analog Synthesizers , Computer Science Technical Reports, vol.10 (Murray Hill, NJ, 1973) B.D. Truax : The Computer Composition-Sound Synthesis Programs POD4, POD5 & POD6 , Sonological Reports, vol.2 (Utrecht, 1973) T. Holmes : Electronics and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture (New York, 1985, 2011/3) D.H. Keefe : ‘Physical Modelling of Wind Instruments’, Computer Music Journal , vol.6/2 (1992), 57–73 J. Pressing : Synthesizer Performance...

Lute

Lute   Reference library

Klaus Wachsmann, James W. McKinnon, Robert Anderson, Ian Harwood, Diana Poulton, David van Edwards, Jonathan Santa Maria Bouquet, Lynda Sayce, Diana Poulton, and Tim Crawford

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
15,156 words
Illustration(s):
3

...gives a tuning of 4ths around a central 3rd. However, as both five- and six-course lutes are mentioned, the position of the ‘central 3rd’ is unfortunately ambiguous. Both the Königstein Liederbuch ( c 1470–73) and an English manuscript dating from between 1493 and 1509 ( GB-Ctc 0.2.13) give intervals of 4–3–4–4 from bass to treble. Ramis de Pareia ( Musica practica , Bologna, 1482) stated that the most common tuning was G – c – e – a – d ′, but mentioned another drone tuning with the lowest three strings tuned to A – d – a ; the trebles were set in various...

Timpani

Timpani   Reference library

James Blades and Edmund A. Bowles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Avgerinos : Lexikon der Pauke (Frankfurt, 1964) H.W. Taylor : The Art and Science of the Timpani (London, 1964) C. Caskel : ‘Trommeln und Pauken: Der neuere Zeit’, Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart , vol.13 (Kassel, 1966), 752–63 W. Kotónski : Schlaginstrumente im modernen Orchester (Mainz, 1968) K. Peinkofer and F. Tannigel : Handbuch des Schlagzeugs, Praxis und Technik (Mainz, 1969) J. Blades : Percussion Instruments and their History (London, 1970, 2/1974) R.M. Longyear : ‘Altenburg’s Observations (1795) on the Timpani’, Percussionist...

Electronic instruments

Electronic instruments   Reference library

Hugh Davies

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
40,167 words

...over the years: the original Hammond organ, weighing about 80 kg, was considered portable; in the 1950s small dance band or ‘combo’ organs weighed about 35 kg and could be fitted into the boot of a car; nowadays a small keyboard can weigh as little as 2.5 kg, while a miniature monophonic instrument weighs about 0.5 kg or less and can be carried in a pocket. From the mid-1980s electronic organs were primarily based on digital synthesis, then on different combinations of synthesized and sampled sounds, and more recently entirely on sampled sounds. Solo performances...

Broughton, Bruce

Broughton, Bruce (8 March 1945)   Reference library

Jon Burlingame

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
977 words

...or Money, 1993; Tombstone, 1993; Holy Matrimony, 1994; Baby's Day Out, 1994; Miracle on 34th Street, 1994; Carried Away, 1996; Homeward Bound 2: Lost in San Francisco, 1996; House Arrest, 1996; Infinity, 1996; Shadow Conspiracy, 1997; A Simple Wish, 1997; Krippendorf's Tribe, 1998; Lost in Space, 1998; One Tough Cop, 1998; Last Flight Out, 2004; Bambi II, 2006 TV series ( selective list ): Gunsmoke, 1973; Hawaii Five-0, 1973; Quincy, M.E., 1977; Dallas, 1979; How the West Was Won, 1979; Buck Rogers in the 25th Century, 1981; Two Marriages, 1983; Amazing...

Siegel, Wayne

Siegel, Wayne (14 Feb 1953)   Reference library

Ingram D. Marshall and Alan Shockley

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
690 words

... 1998 ; Terra, Mez and elecs, 2000 ; Guernica, cl, perc, vn, cb, cptr, 2001 ; Room no.1, Room no.2, Room no.3, all for surround sound with video (J. Geji, collab. P.M. Nielsen), 2004–6 ; Close Orbit, Mez, gui, elec, 2005 ; Jericho 2.0, two trbn, cptr, 2008 ; Two Hands (not clapping), soloist, cptr, 2009 ; Drowning/Burning, interactive sound installation, 2010 Orch: Narcissus ad fontem, orch, 1976 ; Devil's Golf Course, perc, orch, synths, 1986 ; Conc., 2 perc, wind orch, 1988 ; Tarantula, chbr orch, 2003 ; Tres Cantes, chbr orch, 2005 Op and vocal:...

Devo

Devo   Reference library

Theo Cateforis

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
510 words

...and then re-formed and released two more studio albums before unofficially separating in 1990 to pursue their own projects. Mothersbaugh became a prolific television and film composer, while Casale developed various Devo-related spin-offs, notably the Disney-sponsored Dev2.0 ( 2006 ), which featured re-recorded versions and videos of Devo songs with tween singers and performers assuming the role of a revamped Devo band. The original Devo members reunited shortly thereafter, eventually releasing an album of new material in 2010 . Bibliography C....

View: