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Information Theory

Information Theory   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
694 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., and Snyam Kapur . 1993. An information theoretic solution to parameter setting . IRCS Technical Report, 93–07, University of Pennsylvania, Institute for Research in Cognitive Science. Charniak, Eugene . 1993. Statistical language learning . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Chomsky, Noam . 1956. Three models for the description of language . IRE Transactions on Information Theory 2.113–124. Cover, Thomas M. , and Joy A. Thomas . 1991. Elements of information theory . New York: John Wiley and Sons. Li, Ming , and Paul Vitányi . 1993. An introduction to...

Syllables

Syllables   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,680 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(cf. Hayes 1995 ). A non-binary weight scale includes, from heaviest to lightest, the list of syllables: C 0 VVC, C 0 VCC, C 0 VV, C 0 VC, C 0 V (where VV represents either a long vowel or a diphthong, and C 0 is a string of Cs, possibly empty). Most languages collapse this extended weight scale into a binary or ternary scale, but without reversing its rankings: thus, C 0 VC never counts as heavier than C 0 VV, and it may count as lighter than C 0 VV. Another recent finding (Kenstowicz 1994 ) is that many languages let factors other than segment count or...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Theory and the Chomsky Hierarchy The Chomsky hierarchy is the term given to a series of increasingly comprehensive classes of formal languages containing the following principal members: finite-state (Type 3), context-free (Type 2), context-sensitive (Type 1), and R[ ecursively ] E[ numerable ] (r.e., Type 0). Types 1 and 2 were proposed by Chomsky 1963 , on the basis of his investigations into the formal properties of phrase-structure systems of syntactic description. The r.e. and finite-state languages were known from automata theory and recursive...

Categorial Grammar

Categorial Grammar   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,258 words
Illustration(s):
4

...knocked ; though more must be said about the acceptability of the complementizerless case who Kim said knocked ). Third, it is adaptable to languages other than English. In Dutch, corresponding coverage may be attained by dropping rule R 0 and substituting L 1 and L 2 for their symmetrical counterparts R 1 and R 2: With these rules, violations of the that -trace filter are inevitable. Interestingly enough, they form an attested property of Dutch extraction constructions. Moreover, comparing these two sets of structural rule packages for English and...

Formal Grammar

Formal Grammar   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,085 words

...London: Longman. Lasnik, Howard . 1999. Minimalist analysis . Oxford: Blackwell. Lightfoot, David . 1982. The language lottery: Toward a biology of grammars . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Lightfoot, David . 1989. The child's trigger experience: Degree-0 learnability . Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12.321–334. Lightfoot, David W. 1999. The development of language: Acquisition, change, and evolution . Oxford: Blackwell. McCloskey, James . 1988. Syntactic theory. In Newmeyer 1988, pp. 18–59. Newmeyer, Frederick J. , ed. 1988. Linguistics: The Cambridge...

Parsing

Parsing   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,504 words
Illustration(s):
5

...that have to be held in memory, thereby delaying immediate interpretation. Examples of such structures, shown in Figure 2, are wh-dependencies (2.1), relative clauses (2.2), and centerembedded structures (2.3). Figure 2. Long-Distance Structural Dependencies Rapid and accurate parsing of unambiguous word sequences, as in (1) below, depends on efficient access to grammatical knowledge. In the parsing of ambiguous word sequences (2), in contrast, successful grammatical analysis is not enough, because it may provide two or more alternative structures for...

Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
10,033 words

.... Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2.262–268. Haviland, S. E. , and M. M. Clark . 1974. What's new? Acquiring new information as a process in comprehension . Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13.512–521. Johnson-Laird, Philip N. 1983. Mental models: Towards a cognitive science of language . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Keysar, Boaz , Dale Barr , and William T. Horton . 1998. The egocentric basis of language use: Insights from a processing approach . Current Directions in Psychological Science 7.46–50. Searle, John R. ...

Algonquian Languages

Algonquian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,551 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Christoph Wolfart . 1982. A bibliography of Algonquian linguistics . Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press. Voorhis, Paul H. 1974. Introduction to the Kickapoo language . (Language science monographs, 13.) Bloomington: Indiana University Research Center for the Language Sciences. Wolfart, H. Christoph , and Janet F. Carroll . 1981. Meet Cree: A guide to the Cree language . 2d ed. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. Ives...

Language Change

Language Change   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
11,996 words
Illustration(s):
4

...features, such as (1) and (2), this is likely to be true. However, other features typically regarded as regionalisms, such as (3), (4) and (5), can be found in ancient Rome itself (see Table 2). Table 1. Phonological and Morphological Variation in Late Republican Latin (1) e vs. ae < * ai . Latin of Pisaurum Cesula feminine name vs. Roman Latin Caesula Latin of Spoleto cedito ‘he shall cut’ vs. Roman Latin caedito (2) o vs. u < * ou Latin of Norba Locina ‘Lucina, goddess of childbirth’ vs. Roman Latin Lucina (3) - 0 vs. - s after long vowels...

Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
11,108 words

...“amongst other things the application of recent social theory to language data and issues.” 2. Theories and methods On the whole, sociolinguists (of the broader persuasion, at least) tend to be tolerant of a broad range of theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of language in society, using the range of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies typical of the social sciences. The major intellectual currents within the social sciences have all influenced the development of the field: these include functionalism, interactionalism,...

Historical Linguistics

Historical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,403 words
Illustration(s):
9

... p(i) is the probability of occurrence of ancient words in zone i (zone 1 consists of the 100 most frequent words in the language, zone 2 of words of frequency rank 101 to 200, etc.), e is the base of the natural logarithms, η is a parameter expressing the constant rate of decrease of the number of ancient words as i increases (η < 0), and β is a parameter to be determined experimentally for each language (0.5 < β < 1). Starostin 2000 lays out a method he calls “etymostatistics” or “root glottochronology,” which corrects for the skewing of...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

...including the development of the rewriting hierarchy and Categorial Grammars, and their relationship to mathematical and computational linguistics. 2. Grammar formalisms in linguistic theory After the pioneering work on the rewriting hierarchy and its relation to classes of automata, the design of grammatical formalisms diverged in the fields of computer science and linguistics—and, within computer science, between those engaged in the study of formal language theory and those interested in NLP. Nonetheless, many NLP researchers have attempted to use...

Acquisition of Language

Acquisition of Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
14,519 words

...first hundred words, they may over-extend up to 40% of them. Under-extensions and overlaps are harder to document; however, they may be even more pervasive in children's meanings, during a longer period, than over-extensions. The latter become rare by the age of 2;0 (i.e. 2 years, 0 months) to 2;6. Most observations about early meanings have come from diary studies of language production; however, researchers have also examined some sources of children's hypotheses about word-meanings by looking systematically at how children understand words, as well as...

Phonetics

Phonetics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
6,530 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the fact that high vowels like /i, u/ have a slightly higher pitch (or, more accurately, higher fundamental frequency, abbreviated F 0 ) than mid or low vowels have is attributed to a phonetic process that is universal, because this effect has been observed in many languages. Some other phonetic universals that have been proposed include the following: voiceless consonants have longer duration than their voiced counterparts; F 0 (fundamental frequency) is higher following a voiceless segment than following a voiced one; vowels are slightly longer before voiced...

Discourse

Discourse   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
13,244 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in an interaction, but it involves interpretive leaps with respect to (i) judged incompletion and (ii) attribution of cause or even blame. 3. Pauses What is considered a ‘short’ pause is found to vary interestingly with research purposes. It tends to be 0.5 seconds or less for sociolinguists, but 0.2 seconds or less for those investigating more intra-individual processes, such as the packaging of information in narratives. A particular pause is known to seem longer or shorter depending on its position in the discourse (mid-utterance vs. between-turns) as...

Semantics

Semantics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
18,984 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Sweetser, Eve . 1990. From etymology to pragmatics. Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Talmy, Leonard . 1988. Force dynamics in language and cognition . Cognitive Science . 2.49–100. Reprinted in Leonard Talmy , Toward a cognitive semantics, vol. 1, Concept structuring systems . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001. Peter Harder Stereotype Semantics Stereotype Semantics holds that the meaning of a language expression E (typically a lexeme) is not a well-defined set of properties necessarily found...

malachite

malachite  

Mineral, Cu2CO3(OH)2; sp. gr. 3.9–4.0; hardness 3.5–4.0; monoclinic; bright green; pale green streak; in fibrous condition with a silky lustre, crystals with adamantine or vitreous lustre; crystals ...
computer

computer  

Any device capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined manner. The definition of the operations is called the program. An analog computer performs computations by manipulating ...
Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...genres used in similar situations. Jamieson, Kathleen . Eloquence in an Electronic Age . New York, 1988. Claims that informal conversational structure has replaced formal argument in televised political exchanges. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology . 2d ed. Baltimore, 1977. Argues that the linear arrangement of individual literary texts will be replaced by continuous webs of text. Larsen, Richard . “ Toward a Linear Rhetoric of the Essay. ” College Composition and Communication 22 (1971), pp....

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