You are looking at 1-20 of 82 entries  for:

  • All: Science 2.0 x
  • Regional and National History x
clear all

View:

Long Count

Long Count   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,054 words

...of the Long Count has itself been recorded as an Initial Series of 13.0.0.0.0 leading to 4 Ahau 8 Cumku. The implication is that the count of 13.0.0.0.0 must be regarded as a zero count (probably derived, by extension, from the habitual Maya usage of 13 as a zero in calculations involving the sequence of day numbers). This is borne out by an Initial Series of eight days in the eclipse table of the Dresden Codex , an ancient Maya book, which is recorded simply as 8 and not as 13.0.0.0.8. The symbolic nature of the formula is further emphasized by the fact...

Familia

Familia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,862 words

...High School Graduate (in percentages) All United States $42,151 9.3 16.9 12.0 27.8 84.1 White $44,232 7.3 12.9 13.9 24.7 84.9 African American $30,436 21.9 32.7 45.1 41.0 78.5 Asian American $55,525 10.3 11.5 13.2 23.0 85.7 Hispanic $33,455 20.2 30.3 23.4 38.8 57.0 Mexican $31,123 21.2 31.5 21.1 28.4 51 Puerto Rican $30,129 23.0 37.2 35.8 47.4 64.3 Cuban $38,312 15.0 20.2 18.3 33.8 73.0 Central/South American $33,105 16.3 20.9 24.6 32.0 64.3 Other Hispanic $34,935 18.1 28.7 27.4 40.0 71.6 Labor Force Participation (in percentages) Labor Force Participation by...

Education

Education   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,852 words
Illustration(s):
3

...281 439 64.0 New Hampshire 73 149 49.0 Vermont 90 218 41.3 Massachusetts 1,439 3,594 40.0 Rhode Island 551 1,050 52.5 Connecticut 1,264 2,412 52.4 New York 5,447 15,178 35.9 New Jersey 2,326 11,755 19.8 Pennsylvania 6,499 18,096 35.9 Ohio 2,531 9,634 26.3 Indiana 927 4,622 20.0 Illinois 323 1,979 16.3 Michigan 207 809 25.6 Wisconsin 67 198 33.8 Minn. Territory 2 14 14.3 Iowa 17 129 13.2 Ks.-Not Organized _____ _____ _____ California 1 126 0.8 Oregon Territory 2 73 2.7 Slave States Delaware 187 7.134 2.6 Maryland 1,616 26,590 6.1 Kentucky 288 3,216 9.0 Missouri...

Cuicuilco

Cuicuilco   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,285 words

...” Journal of Archaeological Science 21 (1994), 585–596. Cummings, Byron . Cuicuilco and the Archaic Culture of México . University of Arizona Social Science Bulletin 4. Tucson, Ariz., 1933. Delgado, Hugo , Ricardo Molinero , Pablo Cervantes , Jorge Nieto-Obregón , Rufino Lozano-Santa Cruz , Hector L. Macías-González , Claudia Mendoza-Rosales , and Gilberto Silva-Romo . “ Geology of Xitle Volcano in Southern México City—A 2000-year-old Monogenetic Volcano in an Urban Area. ” Revista mexicana de ciencias geológicas 15.2 (1998), 115–131. Haury, Emil ....

Agroecology

Agroecology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,103 words

...economic base services provided by these human-made landscape mosaics. See also Acequias ; Environmental Justice ; and Genetic Sciences . Altieri, Miguel A. Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture . Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995. Conklin, Harold . “The Relation of Hanunuo Culture to the Plant World.” PhD diss., Yale University, 1954. Conklin, Harold . “ The Study of Shifting Cultivation. ” Current Anthropology 2 (1961): 27–61. Nazarea, Virginia D. Ethnoecology: Situated Knowledge/Located Lives . Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1999....

Latina Workers

Latina Workers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,873 words

...10.2 percent of Puerto Rican origin, 5 percent of Cuban origin, and the remaining 24 percent of Central and South American or of Other Hispanic origin. Table 1 shows that, at the close of the twentieth century, Table 1. Labor Force Participation Rates of Women 16 Years of Age and Over By Race or National Origin, 1960–1999 * Race and Hispanic National Origin 1960 1970 1980 1990 1999 Total Hispanic** 34.8 41.2 52.6 56.0 55.9  Mexican 31.5 39.6 52.0 55.3 54.6  Puerto Rican 40.3 32.9 41.7 50.7 55.5  Cuban 51.5 52.8 64.2 55.8 50.2 Non-Hispanic Black 47.2 51.1...

Taylor, Susan

Taylor, Susan (23 January 1946)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
965 words

...The Rhetoric of Susan L. Taylor. Communication Quarterly (1 October 2000). Odom, Maida . Essence Magazine Is a Mission for Editor in Chief Susan L. Taylor. Knight-Ridder Newspapers , 26 January 1994. Susan L. Taylor in ASME Hall of Fame. Essence , 2 February 2002. http://www.essence.com/essence/print/0,14882,265968,00.html . Robbie...

Universities

Universities   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
847 words

...who negotiated the relatively undemanding secondary curriculum. World War II was a turning-point in the history of Australian universities, which up to that time could fairly be characterised as professional training institutions, elite, provincial, and peripheral, catering to 0.2 per cent of the population. Notwithstanding their dependence on government funding, they were autonomous, self-governing institutions, but the price of that independence was chronic insufficiency of resources—a situation that became critical as student numbers began to rise. The...

Dominicans

Dominicans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,136 words

...fabricators, and laborers 30.2 14.5 Service 27.8 14.2 Farm, forestry, and fishing — 2.6 Total 100.0 100.0 Source: Levitt, 2001 . Table 6. Industrial Distribution of the Dominican Labor Force in the Continental United States, 1997–2000 (in percentages) Industry Dominicans Total U.S. Agriculture, mining, and forestry 2.0 2.9 Construction 4.3 6.7 Manufacturing 17.5 15.5 Transportation and communications 8.5 5.8 Wholesale trade 4.5 3.8 Retail trade 23.3 17.3 Finance, insurance, and real estate 5.7 6.4 Business and repair services 7.0 6.9 Personal services 5.3...

Transportation

Transportation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,817 words

...the site's center to a constellation of satellite settlements that are between a few hundred meters/yards to as much as 100 kilometers (65 miles) distant (e.g., Cobá–Yaxuna). Cobá's roads are characterized by the following: intersite linearity; elevations ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 meters (2 to 8 feet); use of roughly dressed stone-retaining walls and natural lime cement ( sascab ); average road widths of 4.5 meters (15 feet); the use of gateway arches associated with road segments, as at Kabah and Labná. The overall lengths vary from less than one kilometer...

Census

Census   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,761 words

...percent of Latinas and Latinos chose this category. (In fact Latinas and Latinos constitute the overwhelming majority in this category, between 95 and 97 percent.) Of Latinas and Latinos, 47.9 percent said they were “White,” 2 percent reported they were “Black, African Am., or Negro,” 1.2 percent said “American Indian or Alaska Native,” 0.5 percent indicated they were in one of the Asian or Pacific Islander categories, and another 6.3 percent chose two or more groups. Data from the 2000 census for each Latina/Latino national origin group is not yet publicly...

Demographics

Demographics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,450 words

...source of labor. During the first half of the twentieth century at least 2 million African Americans departed the South for the Northeast, Midwest, and West. In the 1890s approximately 90 percent of African Americans lived in the South, maintaining a level of regional concentration that had been constant since the period of slavery. Even with some migration to the North and West, relatively few African Americans lived in northern states (only 10 percent), and very few lived in the West (0.3 percent). During the first decade of the twentieth century, few African...

Antiquity

Antiquity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,781 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that Ardipithecus and Sahelanthropus were both hominids, potentially extending the human line back in time almost twice as far as Australopithecus . Starting about 2.4 mya, the human genus Homo emerges in the African fossil record with Homo habilis , marked by a pronounced increase in brain size. H. habilis lived in Africa for about 1 million years. Homo erectus , ranging from 1.8 to 0.3 mya, exhibited an almost modern brain size and migrated across the world, from Africa to Asia, Europe, and the Indonesian archipelago. Hominids continued to become...

Glasgow

Glasgow   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,970 words

...inherent to urban life, was influenced by his acquaintance with businessmen in the clubs and societies that flourished in the city ( see economic policy: 2 ). Francis Hutcheson , the moral philosopher and clergymen who made a major contribution to the development of the Moderate party in the Church of Scotland ( see religious life: 5 ), was in Glasgow from 1730 . Many innovations in science and technology that were pioneered in the University had direct advantages for the success of local industry in the later 18th century. Other Enlightenment...

Obama, Barack

Obama, Barack (b. 4 August 1961)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,444 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the late 1940s. Barack Obama. United States Senate Upon graduating from Punahou in 1979 , Obama studied for two years at Occidental College in Los Angeles before moving to New York City to complete his studies at Columbia University, where he graduated with a BA in political science in 1983 . At both schools he was active in student politics, notably in antiapartheid protests. After two years working as a researcher in New York, first for the consulting firm Business International Corporation and then for the New York Public Interest Research Group, a...

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,061 words

...invasions, diseases, and evangelization. Within this long temporal period, Mesoamerican cultures developed within a contrasting natural landscape of highlands and lowlands characterized by three distinct zones: tierra fria (“cold lands” at 2,000–2,800 meters elevation), tierra templada (“temperate lands” at 1,000–2,000 meters), and tierra caliente (“hot lands” from sea level to 1,000 meters). By 1000 bce , Mesoamerica was becoming a complex mixture of regional power centers that interacted with numerous local social groups through adaptations to...

Government Officials

Government Officials   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,228 words

...Jewel Stadford .) Constance Berry Newman ( 1935 - ) was the assistant secretary of the Bureau of African Affairs at the State Department in 2004 . Born in Chicago, Illinois , she was raised in Tuskegee, Alabama, and attended Bates College in Maine (AB, Political Science, 1956 ) and the University of Minnesota School of Law (BS, 1959 ). Prior to her appointment in the Bureau of African Affairs, she was with the U.S. Agency for International Development as the assistant administrator for Africa. She also worked at the Smithsonian Institution...

Writing Systems

Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,311 words

...of Writing Systems: Preclassic Mesoamerica. ” World Archaeology 17 (1986), 437–458. Useful treatment of theory and evidence with respect to the origins of writing in Mesoamerica. Justeson, John S. , and Terrence Kaufman . “ A Decipherment of Epi-Olmec Hieroglyphic Writing. ” Science 259 (1993), 1703–1711. Presents possible decipherment of writing from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Justeson, John S. , and Peter Mathews . “ Evolutionary Trends in Mesoamerican Hieroglyphic Writing. ” Visible Language 24 (1990), 88–132. Focuses on the shared elements of...

McShine, Arthur Hutton

McShine, Arthur Hutton (1876–1948)   Reference library

Jeffrey Green

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
285 words

...died in Port of Spain on 4 August 1948 . Bibliography “Arthur Hutton McShine: Ophthalmologist.” In Trinidad and Tobago Icons in Science and Technology . Vol. 2. Trinidad and Tobago: National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science, and Technology, 2009. O’Callaghan, Marion . “The McShines and the Rise of the Middle Class.” Trinidad and Tobago Newsday , 28 December 2009. http://www.newsday.co.tt/commentary/0,113262.html . Jeffrey Green...

Prudêncio, Nélson

Prudêncio, Nélson (1944–2012)   Reference library

Adam R. Hornbuckle

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
775 words

...participated in one of the greatest triple jump competitions in the history of track and field. Aided by Mexico City’s elevation of 2,250 meters (7,380 feet), many of the athletes achieved personal best performances in the qualifying rounds, including a world record of 17.10 meters (56 feet, 1¼ inches) by Giuseppe Gentile of Italy. Prudêncio advanced to the final with a career best performance of 16.46 meters (54 feet, 0 inches). In the final, Gentile took the lead with another world record of 17.22 meters in the first round. Prudêncio claimed the second...

View: