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Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
4,805 words

... Jean Picard employed the latest telescopes, and derived a planetary radius equivalent to 6,372 kilometers (modern average: 6,371.2 kilometers [3,958.9 miles]). His network consisted of thirteen triangles, extending 1.2 degrees northward from Paris . The determination of the length of a meridian degree had been the first great task assigned by King Louis XIV ( r. 1643–1715 ) to the young Parisian Académie Royale des Sciences, founded in 1666 by Louis’s minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert ( 1619–1683 ). As part of the French effort to accurately map their...

China

China   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
12,549 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 Places, 1100–1440. Expanding Chinese Knowledge of Overseas N o. of N ew P laces A B C D E F G Southern Song 42 14 12 0 4 8 80 Yuana 31 21 3 1 2 0 58 Ming 6 2 1 2 4 0 15 Total 79 37 16 3 10 8 153 No. of New Places A B C D E F G % of Song in total 53.2 37.8 75.0 0.0 40.0 100.0 52.3 % of Yuan in total 39.2 56.8 18.8 33.3 20.0 0.0 37.9 % of Ming in total 7.6 5.4 6.2 66.7 40.0 0.0 9.8 N otes : A: places in Southeast Asia; B: places in South Asia; C: places in the Arabian Sea region; D: places in the Red Sea region; E: places in the...

Expeditions, Scientific

Expeditions, Scientific   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,541 words

...area of ocean. So the cruise of Galathea may be taken as marking the end of what might be considered the heroic age of marine science, beginning with Halley and Paramore at the end of the seventeenth century and reaching its zenith with Challenger in the 1870s. [ See also Antarctica and the Southern Ocean ; Challenger ; Halley, Edmond .] Deacon, Margaret . Scientists and the Sea 1650–1900: A Study of Marine Science . London and New York: Academic Press, 1971. Deacon, Margaret , Tony Rice , and Colin Summerhayes , eds. Understanding the Oceans:...

Weights and Measures

Weights and Measures   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,524 words

...feet 1 fathom = 2 yards 1 mile = 5,280 feet 1 nautical mile = 6,076 feet Metric 1 meter (or U.S. meter) = 100 centimeters, 1,000 millimeters 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters 1 nautical mile = 1,852 meters The units are related by the following: 1 international inch = 2.54 centimeters 1 international yard = 0.9144 meter Volume or capacity: International 1 U.S. gallon = 231 international cubic inches or 8 liquid pints 1 U.K. gallon = 277.274 international cubic inches 1 U.S. bushel = 2,150.42 international cubic inches or 64 dry pints 1 U.K. bushel = 2,218.19...

Longitude, Institutes of

Longitude, Institutes of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,138 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Geography and other treatises on the subject of longitude were preserved in manuscript form in the Byzantine Empire, to be printed centuries later in Europe. Before this occurred, however, events of the later Middle Ages contributed to the process of diffusion of navigational science and technologies. The Norse not only navigated to North America but also reached Constantinople . As Normans they established control over several large Mediterranean islands, including Sicily. The enlightened king Roger II (r. 1130–1154 ) invited Islamic astronomers and...

Inertial Navigation

Inertial Navigation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
9,234 words
Illustration(s):
2

...“one-mile-per-hour” INS, with a conventional gimballed configuration, the two gyros with horizontal input axes need to have drift uncertainties of less than 0.01 degrees per hour—preferably no more than 0.005 degrees per hour. The “azimuth” gyro, with input axis vertical, needs a drift uncertainty of about 0.05 degrees per hour. Typically the gyros need to be able to operate with maximum input rates of 0.2 degrees per second and to have scale factor errors of less than two hundred parts per million (ppm). For a “one-mile-per-day” system, typical of the military...

Navigational Instruments

Navigational Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
30,532 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Deborah Jean Warner, eds. Instruments of Science: An Historical Encyclopedia . New York: Garland, 1998. This book is the result of a joint effort of the Science Museum (London) and the National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The large, well illustrated, multiauthor volume features extremely broad coverage of scientific instruments. Chapman, Allan . Dividing the Circle: The Development of Critical Angular Measurements in Astronomy (1500–1850) . New York: Ellis Horwood, 1990. 2d ed. New York: Wiley, 1995. The author has...

Marine Science Instruments

Marine Science Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Vol. 2, chap. 3, Sounding. Taunton, U.K.: Hydrographer of the Navy, 1969. A useful source of details of mid-twentieth-century British naval sounding technology. Ritchie, G. S. No Day Too Long: An Hydrographers’ Tale . Edinburgh, U.K.: Pentland Press, 1992. An excellent account of hands-on hydrography from a former hydrographer to the Royal Navy. Rozwadowski, Helen M. Fathoming the Ocean: The Discovery and Exploration of the Deep Sea . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005. An inspired account of nineteenth-century deep-sea science against...

Trading Vessels

Trading Vessels   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
19,211 words
Illustration(s):
1

...America Line). TABLE 2. World Tonnage 1914, 1919, 1948, and 1965 (million gross registered tons) Country 1914 % 1919 % 1948 % 1965 % U.K. 20.5 45.2 18.2 38 18.0 22.4 21.5 13.4 U.S. 4.3 9.4 11.9 24.9 29.2 36.3 21.5 13.4 Germany 5.1 11.3 3.3 6.8 0.3 0.4 5.3 3.3 France 1.9 4.2 2.1 4.1 2.8 3.5 5.2 3.2 Norway 2.0 4.3 2.1 3.3 4.3 5.3 15.6 9.8 Japan 1.7 3.8 2.4 4.9 1.0 1.3 12.0 7.5 Netherlands 1.5 3.2 1.6 3.3 2.7 3.4 4.9 3.0 Greece n/a n/a n/a n/a 1.4 1.6 7.4 4.4 Liberia n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 17.5 10.9 Total 45.4 100 47.9 100 80.3 100 160.0 100 Sources : William...

Cartography

Cartography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
13,094 words

...Mary Lynnette . Map & Imagery Laboratory . University of California http://www.library.ucsb.edu/people/larsgaard Moreland, Carl , and David Bannister . Antique Maps . London: Longman, 1983. 2d ed. Oxford: Phaidon Christie’s, 1986. National Atlas of the United States: Magnetic Field—Secular Variation of the Declination Component for the Epoch 1995.0. http://www.nationalatlas.gov/mld/dsvcntl.html . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). http://www.noaa.gov . Nordenskiöld , Baron Nils Adolf Erik . Periplus and Facsimile Atlas to...

Dead Reckoning

Dead Reckoning   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,921 words

...and Dieren, Netherlands: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1985. Hewson, J. B. A History of the Practice of Navigation . 2d ed. Glasgow: Brown, Son and Ferguson, 1963. Hourani, George F. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times . Rev. ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995. Howse, Derek . Greenwich Time and the Longitude . London: Philip Wilson, 1997. Jonkers, A. R. T. North by Northwest: Seafaring, Science, and the Earth’s Magnetic Field . Göttingen, Germany: Cuvillier Verlag, 2000. Lewis, David . We, the Navigators:...

Oceania

Oceania   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
13,277 words
Illustration(s):
5

...tested Andrew Sharp’s accidental settlement thesis and found it wanting. Lewis, David . We the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific . 2d ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. Originally published in 1972, this remains the most authoritative and comprehensive analysis of traditional Pacific navigation. Neyret, Jean . Pirogues Océaniennes . 2 vols. Vol. 1, Melanésie, and vol. 2, Polynésie, Micronésie, Indonésie, Inde, autre continents. Paris: Association des Amis des Musées de la Marine, [1976]. This compilation by a missionary...

Propulsion

Propulsion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,371 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Improvements introduced by engine manufacturers boosted efficiency from 40 percent to 50 percent, while that of steam turbines remained at about 30 percent. Lower propeller speeds could be achieved with direct-driven propellers, by increasing the stroke-to-bore ratio from 1.5–2.0 to 4, resulting in propeller speeds in the range of sixty to eighty revolutions per minute. Outputs of 100,000 brake horsepower from a single unit are now attainable. The power density per unit of piston area, also called the specific power, increased by 400 percent between 1950 ...

Longitude Finding

Longitude Finding   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,504 words

...angular distance; i.e. one-twenty-fourth part of Earth’s circumference). But for someone at a position the longitude of which is unknown, this helps little unless four conditions can be fulfilled: 1. That some arbitrary point has been established as the base position (longitude 0°). 2. That some celestial event, visible both from the base position and from the location of the observer, be noted. 3. That the time of the event at the base position be known. 4. That the local time of the observed event can be determined. Hipparchus proposed using eclipses of...

Shipyards

Shipyards   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
7,804 words
Illustration(s):
8

...for ships in World War I in 1917 . Between July 1940 and June 1945 , the navy added to its fleet 10 battleships, 18 large aircraft carriers, 9 small carriers, 110 escort carriers, 2 large cruisers, 10 heavy cruisers, 33 light cruisers, 358 destroyers, 504 destroyer escorts, 211 submarines, and 82,028 landing craft. The warships were equipped with 27,000 torpedoes, 0.5 million depth charges, 100,000 half-inch shells, and 80,000 navy airplanes. These phenomenal totals were in addition to the vast and rapidly built merchant-ship tonnage that was launched....

Casualties

Casualties   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of disease on the survival rates of sick and wounded soldiers was profound. In the Mexican War, the rate of death from disease was 103.9 per 1,000 men. The rate fell to 71.4 per 1,000 in the Civil War and then to 34.0 per 1,000 in the Spanish‐American War. In World War I, the rate was only 16.5 per 1,000, and in World War II it fell to just 0.6 per 1,000. Although the weapons of war continue to grow more destructive, improved tactical doctrine, more efficient evacuation, and advances in medical technology and techniques promise continued reduction in the...

Science And Technology

Science And Technology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of just over 2 per cent of total defence expenditure. Australian defence science and technology has benefited greatly from Australia's involvement with other countries. From the time of the Joint Project Agreement with the United Kingdom in 1946 Australia has gained valuable experience through cooperative ventures and through the exchange of information with other nations. From the early 1950s Australia has been an active member of the Commonwealth Defence Science Organisation, the aim of which is to promote the best use of the defence science resources of...

hoplites

hoplites   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...and helmet; a double-grip, concave shield with bronze veneer; a wooden spear 7 to 10 feet (2.1 to 3 metres) long, and a secondary short iron sword. The helmet, breastplate, and greaves were constructed entirely of bronze, reaching a thickness of about a half-inch (1.27 cm), which provided substantial protection from the entry of most swords, missiles, and spears. The unusually large wooden shield of some 15–20 lb (6.8–9.1 kg) in weight, with a 3 foot (0.9 metre) diameter, covered half the warrior's body; its size and shape explain the nature of hoplite...

Urban Defenses

Urban Defenses   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,988 words
Illustration(s):
1

...perimeter. Illustrative examples of particularly well preserved medieval circuits include Ávila (perimeter of 1.6 miles [2.5 kilometers], with eighty-two towers), Visby (2.2 miles [3.5 kilometers], with twenty-seven towers), Lugo (1.3 miles [2.1 kilometers], with forty-six towers), Carcassonne (one mile [1.65 kilometers], with forty-two towers), Aigues Mortes (one mile [1.6 kilometers], with twenty towers), and Conwy (1.3 kilometers [0.8 miles], with twenty-one towers). Gates were the most prestigious and expensive elements in the circuit and were the focus...

Venereal Disease

Venereal Disease   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...symptoms did present themselves. The fighting in the South-West Pacific Area posed fewer problems than the Middle East, again because of a relative absence of sources of infection. The rates per thousand in the Army across the theatre (excluding Australia) were: 1942 —2.33; 1943 —1.06; 1944 —0.36; 1945 —7.69. In Australia the rates soared again, and once more the explanation, at least in part, was that VD was a ‘leave disease’. In the Army the rates were: 1942 —18.93; 1943 —16.85; 1944 —13.18; 1945 —17.08. Once again, the principal source of infection...

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