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Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,681 words
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1

...2 935 1 692 Armenia 1 376 0 0 Belgium 7 5,801 0 0 Brazil 2 1,901 0 0 Bulgaria 4 2,722 0 0 Canada 18 12,599 0 0 China 9 6,602 2 2,000 Czech Republic 6 3,528 0 0 Finland 4 2,676 1 1,600 France 59 63,363 0 0 Germany 17 20,339 0 0 Hungary 4 1,755 0 0 India 15 3,040 8 3,602 Iran 0 0 1 915 Japan 55 46,772 2 1,933 Korea, Republic of 20 16,810 0 0 Lithuania 1 1,185 0 0 Mexico 2 1,310 0 0 Netherlands 1 449 0 0 Pakistan 2 425 0 0 Romania 1 655 1 655 Russian Federation 31 21,743 4 3,775 Slovak Republic 6 2,442 0 0 Slovenia 1 656 0 0 South Africa 2 1,800 0 0 Spain...

Climate and Climate Change

Climate and Climate Change   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,238 words

...is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth . New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Summary for Policymakers . Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: WMO/IPCC, 2007. http://www.ipcc.ch/SPM2feb07.pdf . Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel . Times of Feast, Times of Famine: A History of Climate since the Year 1000 . Translated by Barbara Bray . Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1971....

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,968 words
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3

...0.04 0.5 −21.20.4 1897–1904 1.3 0.3 −18.6 −0.4 1904–1911 2.1 0.2 −8.8 −0.1 1911–1919 3.0 0.1 −3.2 0.6 1919–1930 2.7 −1.4 −2.6 0.2 1930–1938 3.1 −0.4 −0.1 0.9 N ote : Net exports = exports-imports; domestic production = gross domestic product. S ource : Mosk, p. 184. T able 2. Shares of various sectors in the gross domestic product and in the labor force, and labor productivity in various sectors Year % of GDP % of labor force Labor productivity Agr Man1 Man2 Agr Man2 Agr Man2 1910 31.5 15.4 25.7 60.2 18.6 0.52 1.38 1938 15.9 32.4 51.8 44.7 28.7 0.36...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,251 words

...the digital gap, ranging from 18 for high-income countries to 2.3 for medium-income and 0.01 for low-income countries. In terms of the market share in information technology, the United States accounts for 34.7 percent, Europe for 29.3 percent, Japan for 14.6 percent, and the rest of the world for only 21.4 percent. [ See also Computers and Internet . ] Bibliography Campbell-Kelly, Martin , and William Aspray . Computer: A History of the Information Machine . New York: Basic Books, 1996. 2d ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2004. Castells, Manuel . ...

Natural Resources

Natural Resources   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,061 words

...and paperboard consumption, kg/person/year ( 2005 ) 32.92 6.55 132.39 19.61 291.61 36.34 Annual water withdrawals per capita, m3/person/year ( 2000 ) 632 178 586 797 1,668 471 Actual renewable water resources per capita, m3/person/year ( 2006 ) 3,989.5 7,208.7 10,679.5 1,383.0 19,649.2 45,399.7 * ktoe = thousand tonnes of oil equivalent; ** kgoe = kilograms of oil equivalent. S ource : World Resources Institute. and Paul Ehrlich's The Population Bomb played an important role in raising public awareness of environmental problems. Another factor that was...

Automobile

Automobile   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,105 words
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1

...1,753,673 450,544 113,435 11. Suzuki 2,297,277 2,004,310 292,967 0 12. DaimlerChrysler 5 2,044,533 1,275,152 378,278 391,103 13. BMW 1,366,838 1,266,838 0 0 14. Mitsubishi Motors 1,313,409 1,008,970 296,431 8,008 15. Avtovaz (Russia) 765,627 765,627 0 0 16. Tata (India) 561,081 190,468 196,389 174,224 17. Chang'an Auto (China) 6 522,757 446,692 76,065 0 18. FAW Group (China) 6 479,318 393,754 45,790 39,774 19. Beijing Automotive (China) 6 373,593 297,528 76,065 0 20. Geely (China) 6 207,149 207,149 0 0 Reclassified into groups by the author from...

Computers

Computers   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,210 words
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1

...as a generic term for electronic computers. But like most other computer entrepreneurs in this period, the T able 1. International Use of Computers, 1950–1974 Y ear U nited S tates U nited K ingdom F rance W est G ermany J apan 1950 2 3 0 0 0 1955 240 13 5 5 0 1960 5,400 217 165 300 85 1965 24,700 1,582 1,500 2,300 1,870 1970 74,060 6,269 5,460 7,000 8,800 1974 165,040 14,400 16,100 18,800 26,100 S ource : Flamm, p. 135. developers of the UNIVAC (originally the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, later Remington Rand, and ultimately Sperry Rand), had...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,048 words
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4

...3). T able 4. Daily real wages for males and females in yen and the ratio of female wages to male wages Y ears A griculture M anufacturing M ales F emales D ifferential M ales F emales D ifferential 1885–1889 0.73 0.48 65.8 0.86 0.39 45.4 1900–1904 0.91 0.70 76.9 0.91 0.42 46.2 1920–1924 1.23 0.94 76.4 1.65 0.74 44.9 1935–1939 0.97 0.77 79.4 1.84 0.60 32.6 N otes : Daily real wages are deflated by the consumer price index, with 1934–1936 = 100. S ources : Mosk, Competition and Cooperation , p. 65. To keep these male workers tied to the company, the heavy...

Suicide

Suicide   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,127 words
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... 2000 , Denmark's rate was 27.2. Durkheim noted that England and Wales had a low rate of 7.0 suicides per 100,000 people in the mid-nineteenth century. In 2002 the United Kingdom's rate was 13.9. Recently, countries with higher rates (numbers of suicides per 100,000 people) included the Russian Federation (81.2 in 2002 ), Kazakhstan (59.0 in 2002 ), Estonia (57.5 in 2002 ), and Hungary (56.9 in 2003 ); lower-rate countries included Greece (5.9 in 2002 ), Argentina (12.9 in 1996 ), Italy (14.4 in 2001 ), Singapore (19.0 in 2002 ), India (21.3 in ...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
20,291 words
Illustration(s):
3

...agricultural land Brunei 0 0 3,500 0 0 500 535 45 12,500 17,080 23,000 Burma 30,865 285,000 72,341 0 2,573,615 6,000,000 51,300 7,000 301,000 9,321,121 11,293,000 Cambodia 435 80,000 24,000 0 40,000 2,150,000 32,100 7,300 77,000 2,410,835 5,307,000 Indonesia 3,068 3,504,234 2,675,060 3,600,000 331,000 11,800,901 1,529,403 176,845 867,645 24,488,156 45,577,000 Laos 0 70,000 0 0 16,900 740,000 39,000 25,000 126,300 1,017,200 1,909,000 Malaysia 0 25,000 1,400,000 3,620,000 0 677,000 52,700 3,700 30,900 5,809,300 7,870,000 Philippines 0 2,500,000 80,314 17,000...

Working Class

Working Class   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,668 words
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2

...Labor, Social Democratic, and Communist parties are generally considered to be political representatives of the working class. What is remarkable, however, is that such parties emerged mainly in one specific historical period, T able 2. Intensity of Labor Unrest on a World Scale W orld C ore N on - core 1872–1893 2 10 0.2 1893–1917 9 18 5 1917–1940 105 106 107 1940–1968 143 96 195 1968–1985 110 58 174 S ource : Silver, p. 285. The index of intensity of labor unrest is the multiplication of an index of acuteness (the number of reports of labor unrest per...

Farms and Farmers in the United States

Farms and Farmers in the United States   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,004 words
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1

...” Agricultural History 74, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 502–514. Considers the part-time, exurban farming movement. Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made . New York: Random House, 1972. Explores slave-planter relations. Lemon, James T. The Best Poor Man's Country: A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972. Explores early farm systems and ethnic differences. Merchant, Carolyn . Ecological Revolutions: Nature, Gender, and Science in New England . Chapel Hill:...

Global Warming

Global Warming   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,809 words

...allows him to advance a controversial hypothesis suggesting thousands of years of human alteration of Earth's atmosphere with a subsequent impact on climate over thousands of years. Schulze, Ernst-Detief , et al. “ Making Deforestation Pay under the Kyoto Protocol? ” Science 299 (2003): 101–125. R. Max...

Christianity

Christianity   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
15,290 words
Illustration(s):
5

..., and Todd M. Johnson , from 1900 to 1990 the number of Christians in South Asia increased from about 0.7 to 4.8 percent of the population; in Southeast Asia the increase was from 10 to 20 percent. This study estimates that in 2000 there were 62 million Christians in India (6 percent of the population), 3.3 million in Pakistan (2.4 percent), 1.76 million in Sri Lanka (9.4 percent), 932,000 in Bangladesh (0.7 percent), and 576,000 in Nepal (2.4 percent), as well as small numbers in Bhutan and the Maldives. Figures for countries in Southeast Asia in ...

Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,701 words
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2

...China, and Japan. These regions hold some of the most densely concentrated populations in the world—a fact ensuring that the resulting winds and floods regularly claim human victims. The worst Asian cyclone, which struck Bangladesh in 1970 , killed between 0.5 million and 1 million people. Modern science, technology, and engineering have a mixed record in reducing or mitigating such disasters. Satellite meteorology, early-warning systems, and coastal shelters have quite likely lessened the number of victims of cyclonic storms in the Bay of Bengal, for...

Health and Disease

Health and Disease   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
14,231 words
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4

...; Nongovernment Organizations ; Racism ; and Tuberculosis . ] Bibliography Anderson, Neil , and Shula Marks . “ The State, Class, and the Allocation of Health Resources in South Africa. ” Social Science and Medicine 28, no. 5 (1989): 515–530. Bashford, Alison . “ Global Biopolitics and the History of World Health. ” History of the Human Sciences 19, no. 1 (2006): 67–88. Cordell, Dennis , Joel Gregory , and Victor Piche . “The Demographic Reproduction of Health and Disease: Colonial Central African Republic and Contemporary Burkina Faso.” In The...

Food

Food   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,741 words
Illustration(s):
4

...lbs dressed beef) $40.95 Cost of killing, processing, salt, icing, etc. $1.75 Freight on 710 pounds @ $0.45 per cwt $3.20 New York selling charges @ $0.35 per cwt $2.48 Costs of purchase, processing, and transport −$48.38 Sale in NYC of 710 lbs dressed beef @ 5 3/8¢ per lb. $38.17 (Net loss on dressed beef in NYC) −10.21 Sale of hide, 70 lbs @ $.09 per lb $6.30 Sale of by-products $4.50 Yield from all by-product sales $10.80 Net profit from all transactions $0.59 * hundred-weight S ource : William Cronon. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West . New...

Environment

Environment   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
18,536 words
Illustration(s):
1

...160 29 6.2 1750 225 29 7.0 1800 330 28 7.5 1850 435 32 9.0 1900 475 45 12.0 1950 590 84 30.0 2005 1,300 127 71.6 (South: 48.6) (North: 22.9) Sources: Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones , Atlas of World Population History (New York: Facts on File, 1978 ), pp. 167, 177, and 181; World Factbook (Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 2005 ). T able 2. Population density and arable land per person C hina J apan S outh K orea N orth K orea Population density (persons/hectare) 1.39 3.37 4.88 1.90 Arable land (hectares/person) 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.12...

Film

Film   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,406 words
Illustration(s):
2

...from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s. National identity and local customs were pitted against the so-called Hollywood T able 1. Feature Film Production during World War II Year Mexico Argentina Brazil Cuba Chile 1940 27 49 13 4 4 1941 46 47 4 1 0 1942 49 57 4 1 5 1943 67 34 8 3 3 1944 78 24 9 0 4 1945 79 22 8 0 6 invasion. In a continent struggling between provincialism and industrialization, between tradition and change, emerging national cinemas helped audiences—many of which were illiterate—to understand the ways of the modern world. It was also the time...

Medicine and Public Health

Medicine and Public Health   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,302 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and Disease ; Hospitals ; and Nursing . ] Bibliography Arnold, David . Science, Technology, and Medicine in Colonial India . New Cambridge History of India, vol. 3, part 5. New York and Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000. The best available account of colonial medicine; provides a narrative of the interaction between biomedicine and ethnomedicine in British India. Bynum, W. F. , and Roy Porter , eds. Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine . 2 vols. London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. A comprehensive...

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