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gradiometer

gradiometer  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Eq]A type of geophysical instrument used for magnetic surveys in which a pair of magnetometers are normally mounted one above the other on a single support staff. Various kinds are available, ...
transmission electron microscope

transmission electron microscope  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
An electron microscope that is used to explore the internal structure of mineral thin sections. The electron beam passes through the specimen and is focused by lenses on the other side to produce an ...
Afar

Afar   Reference library

Tim D. White and Sileshi Semaw

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,514 words

... (5.8–5.2 million years ago from the Middle Awash and Gona), Ar. ramidus (4.5–4.3 million years ago, again from the Middle Awash and Gona), Au. afarensis (3.8–2.9 million years ago, named after the Afar region, and documented at Hadar, Middle Awash, Woranso-Mille, and Dikika; and outside of the Afar at Laetoli in Tanzania), Au. garhi (2.5 million years ago, Middle Awash), and Homo sapiens idaltu (155,000 years ago, Middle Awash). Gona preserves the longest and continuous sequence of archaeology-rich deposits in the world from 2.6–0.1 million years...

Cultural Creativity

Cultural Creativity   Reference library

Ian Alden Russell

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
689 words

...a decade. As such, archaeologists as well as anthropologists have over this last decade undertaken serious engagements with the traces, residues, and phenomena of digital life worlds and computer game industries. Many have seized participatory opportunities enabled through Web 2.0 digital architectures and virtual worlds such as Second Life, expanding the possibilities of archaeological interpretive processes. Whichever media form or creative outlet it uses, archaeology as a transdisciplinary pursuit has explored and will continue to explore new and...

Satellite Imagery

Satellite Imagery   Reference library

Martin J. F. Fowler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,298 words

...and while it carried the same sensors as IKONOS, its lower orbit resulted in panchromatic and multispectral imagery with GSDs of 2 feet (0.6 m) and 6.5 feet (2 m), respectively. The highest resolution commercial imagery currently available is acquired by the GeoEye-1 satellite, which provides 1.6-foot (0.5-m) and 5.4-foot (1.64-m) GSD products. While the panchromatic sensor carried by the satellite is capable of a GSD of 1.3 feet (0.4 m), the publicly available product is currently “capped” at the lower resolution by the U.S. government on grounds of national...

Statistical Analysis

Statistical Analysis   Reference library

David L. Carlson and Juan A. Barceló

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,160 words

...the archaeologist balances the chances of rejecting the hypothesis when it is really true (the type I error rate or significance level) against the chances of accepting the hypothesis when it is really false (the type II error rate). Traditionally, within the social sciences a significance level of 0.05 is considered acceptable. This means that 5 percent of the time the archaeologist will mistakenly reject the null hypothesis. Examples of null hypotheses include comparisons of simple descriptive statistics (“The average thickness of pottery vessels at site A is...

Olduvai Gorge

Olduvai Gorge   Reference library

Tim Reynolds

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
729 words

...in tool types and their more regular flaking with time. The importance of stone tools can be gauged by the fact that some materials were occasionally transported from sources approximately 6.2 miles (10 km) away. The Oldowan tradition was replaced by Acheulian industries prior to 1.4 million years ago, in upper Bed II, but was contemporary with it until about 0.8 million years ago, in Bed III. The fossils found at Olduvai have also been important, the first hominid found being Zinjanthropus boisei (later renamed Australopithecus boisei ), discovered by...

Homo erectus

Homo erectus   Reference library

Leslie C. Aiello and Melanie D. Crisfield

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,861 words

...Léon to between 1.3 and 1.2 million years. Only Venta Micena has possible hominin remains (a cranial fragment and three long bone fragments), although these may be remains of a young ungulate. Feunta Nueva 3 and Barranco Léon contain not hominin remains but mammal bones that are associated with possible stone tools. The evidence from these sites remains controversial, and hominin presence in western and central Europe is not well established until much later. The earliest fossil hominins from western Europe date to 1 to 0.6 million years ago from the...

Holocene

Holocene   Reference library

Chris Scarre, Petra Day, Willy Tinner, Angela E. Close, Thomas C. Johnson, and Vaughn M. Bryant

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
4,011 words

... Pleistocene ; Somerset Levels ; Star Carr . ] Gaillard, M. J. “Archaeological Applications.” In Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science , edited by Scott A. Elias , vol. 3, pp. 2570–2595, 2007. Huntley, B. , and H. J. B. Birks . An Atlas of Past and Present Pollen Maps for Europe, 0–13,000 Years Ago , 1983. Huntley, B. , and T. Webb III. Vegetation History , 1988. Roberts, Neil . The Holocene, an Environmental History, 2e, 1998. Tinner, W. , et al. “Fire Ecology North and South of the Alps since the Last Ice Age.” Holocene 15 (2005):...

Metals

Metals   Reference library

David A. Scott, Donny L. Hamilton, David A. Scott, Donny L. Hamilton, and George Michaels

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
5,502 words

...iron was produced in China in the early centuries bc , over a thousand years earlier than in the West. Wrought iron, produced in Europe and Africa, is iron with slag inclusions containing no or very little carbon. Steel is iron containing from 0.1 percent to 1.0 percent of carbon, while cast iron contains from 2 percent to 4 percent carbon. Wrought iron was produced by the bloomery process in which a pasty mass of iron mixed with charcoal and slag had to be consolidated and worked by the smith to produce an ingot for making iron objects. In China, cast iron...

Genetics in Archaeology

Genetics in Archaeology   Reference library

Jason Lewis

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
4,402 words

...2) as modern humans. The nuclear DNA used to construct the draft complete genome came from several specimens from four sites (which also provided mtDNA described above): Vindija Cave in Croatia; El Sidron in Asturias, Spain, dated to roughly 49,000 BP; Feldhofer Cave in the Neander Valley, Germany, (from which they sequenced the Neanderthal type specimen found in 1856 ) dated to about 42,000 BP; and Mezmaiskaya Cave in the Caucasus, Russia, dated to 60,000 BP to 70,000 BP. In the publication of the draft complete genome by Green and colleagues in Science ,...

Radiocarbon Dating

Radiocarbon Dating   Reference library

R. Ervin Taylor

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,758 words

... Archaeo-paleomagnetic Dating ; Dating the Past ; Dendrochronology ; Fission-Track Dating ; Luminescence Dating ; Obsidian Hydration Dating ; Potassium-Argon Dating ; Seriation ; Stratigraphy . ] Brothwell, D. R. , and A. M. Pollard , eds. Handbook of Archaeological Sciences , 2001. Currie, L. A. “The Remarkable Metrological History of 14 C Dating: From Ancient Egyptian Artifacts to Particles of Soot and Grains of Pollen.” Czechoslovak Journal of Physics 53 (2003): A137–A160. Currie, L. A. “The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon...

Databases

Databases   Reference library

Angela M. Labrador

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,076 words

...Jean-Claude . “Four Codes for the Description of Artifacts: An Essay in Archaeological Technique and Theory.” American Anthropologist 60, no. 2. New Series (April 1958): 335–357. Early methodological discussion of artifact coding in databases. Huvila, Isto . “Participatory Archive: Towards Decentralized Curation, Radical User Orientation, and Broader Contextualization of Records Management.” Archival Science 8, no. 1 (March 2008): 15–36. Lock, Gary R. , ed. Using Computers in Archaeology: Towards Virtual Pasts , 2003. McPherron, Shannon P. , and Harold...

Urnfields

Urnfields   Reference library

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,578 words

...On the other hand, finds of children’s rattles and a set of bone pan-pipes indicate that concerns of sentimentality and artistic production had their place in Urnfield life. At Sobiejuchy in west-central Poland, 518 cremation graves of a total of around 700 in an area of 1.2 acres (0.5 ha) have been analyzed. Pottery is again the commonest find; 346 graves had a single urn, 62 had two urns, and only a few had more. The entire cemetery produced only 109 bronze and 56 iron objects; there was also stone, glass, clay, and amber. The cemetery appears to have...

Astronomy

Astronomy   Reference library

Anthony F. Aveni and Anthony F. Aveni

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,861 words

...contended that these people charted the long-term horizon limits of the moon, often by employing notches on the horizon as precise indicators, thus showing an interest in predicting eclipses. Moreover, Thom alleged, a fundamental measuring unit, the “megalithic yard” (about 2.7 ft [0.8 m]), was employed in the design of many of these structures, which builders often deliberately distorted into egg and elliptical shapes. Thom’s Megalithic Man was, like the modern Western scientist, apparently motivated by curiosity to understand the universe for its own...

Pastoralists, African

Pastoralists, African   Reference library

Brian M. Fagan, Andrew B. Smith, Paul J. Lane, and Andrew B. Smith

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,351 words

...quantities of sheep and seal bones, a few formal stone tools (0.2 percent), and large quantities of pottery. This is quite distinct from the smaller but contemporaneous rock shelter of Witklip, which shows a preponderance of small antelopes in the fauna, 4 percent formal lithic component, and few potshards. Thus the argument is for quite separate social and economic groups interacting, either amicably (with exchange of pottery), or in enmity (when sheep were stolen). Kasteelberg, a hill some 2.5 miles (4 km) from the coast, from where shellfish and seals...

Excavation

Excavation   Reference library

William S. Dancey, William S. Dancey, E. B. Banning, Thomas F. King, Thomas R. Hester, and Thomas F. King

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
5,683 words

...country of their origin. Such legislation, along with technological advances, is moving archaeology forward as a legitimate science. [ See also Cultural Resource Management . ] Harris, Edward . Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy , 2d ed., 1989. Joukowsky, Martha . A Complete Manual of Field Archaeology; Tools and Techniques of Field Work for Archaeologists , 1980. Trigger, Bruce G. A History of Archaeological Thought , 2d ed., 2006. Willey, Gordon R. , and Jeremy Sabloff . A History of American Archaeology , 3d ed., 1993. William S. Dancey ...

Human Evolution, Theories of

Human Evolution, Theories of   Reference library

Richard G. Delisle, Peter Andrews, Leslie C. Aiello, Melanie Lee Chang, Susan Cachel, Nicholas Toth, Kathy Schick, and Melanie Lee Chang

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,362 words

...of Monkeys and Apes , 1965. Kinzey, Warren G. , ed. The Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models , 1987. Lovejoy, C. Owen . “Reexamining Human Origins in Light of Ardipithecus ramidus .” Science 326 (2009): 74. Full text online only: DOI 10.1126/science.1175834, 74e1-8. Unger, Peter S. , and Matt Sponheimer . “The Diets of Early Hominins.” Science 334 (2011): 190–193. Washburn, Sherwood L. , ed. The Social Life of Early Man , 1961. Susan Cachel Human Evolution, Theories of: The Archaeology of Human Origins Archaeology is the practice of in...

Subsurface Testing

Subsurface Testing   Reference library

Michael J. Shott, C. F. Gaffney, John W. Weymouth, Margaret Watters, and Lawrence B. Conyers

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,552 words

...exploited the introduction of a portable magnetometer in 1954 (for historical background, see A. Clark, Seeing Beneath the Soil, 2d ed., 1996). In magnetometry, the strength of the earth’s magnetic field is measured a few inches above the surface of a site using very sensitive magnetometers. The magnetic field in mid-northern latitudes is roughly 50,000 nanotesla (nT), while the sensitivity of modern instruments can be 0.01 nT. In broad terms, magnetometers are classified as scalar and vector instruments. Scalar instruments, referred to as total-field...

Writing

Writing   Reference library

Denise Schmandt-Besserat, James L. Swauger, Marvin A. Powell, Christopher A. Rollston, James P. Allen, M. O’Connor, Christopher Rollston, William D. Whitt, Christopher A. Rollston, William D. Whitt, and Christopher Rollston

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,004 words

...science of Egyptology. [ See also Egypt ; Egyptology ; Mesopotamia: Sumer and Akkad ; Nubia ; Rosetta Stone . ] André-Leicknam, Béatrice , and Christiane Zeigler , eds. Naissance de l’écriture: Cunéiformes et hiéroglyphes , 1982. Dreyer, Günter . “Umm el-Qaab I: Das prädynastische Königs grab U-j und seine frühen Schriftzeugnisse” (Umm el-Qaab I: The Predynastic Royal Tomb U-j and Its Early Written Records). Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 86 (1998). Fischer, Henry George . “Hieroglyphen” (in English). In Lexikon der Ägyptologie , vol. 2,...

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