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golden section

golden section  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller to the greater part is the same as that of the greater to the whole. ...
malachite

malachite  

Mineral, Cu2CO3(OH)2; sp. gr. 3.9–4.0; hardness 3.5–4.0; monoclinic; bright green; pale green streak; in fibrous condition with a silky lustre, crystals with adamantine or vitreous lustre; crystals ...
computer

computer  

Any device capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined manner. The definition of the operations is called the program. An analog computer performs computations by manipulating ...
bit

bit   Reference library

Graham Saxby

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
149 words

..., byte . ‘Bit’ is a contraction of ‘binary digit’. In the binary system there are only two digits, 0 and 1, so that 2 in the denary (base 10) system is represented by 10, 3 by 11, 4 by 100, 5 by 101, and so on. In electronics, a bit can be represented by a switch that is either off (0) or on (1). Eight bits represent 2 8 (256) different numbers (a byte). A kilobyte (kb) is 1,024 bytes, a megabyte (Mb) is 1,024 kb, and a gigabyte (Gb) is 1,024 Mb. The full file size of a digitally recorded scene is roughly three bytes per pixel, so that a 3‐million pixel...

Fulton, Robert

Fulton, Robert (1765–1815)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
254 words

...in New York. http://www.anb.org/articles/13/13-00573.html?a=1&n=robert%20fulton&d=10&ss=0&q=2 (subscription) Biography, bibliography https://www.jstor.org/stable/1594565?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents (subscription) Activity as a collector, biography, images http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/mrs-oliver-hazard-perry-elizabeth-champlin-mason-34687 Image of miniature http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection#!?q=%22robert%20fulton%22&offset=0&pageSize=0&sortBy=Relevance&sortOrder=asc&perPage=20 Images of miniatures ...

Smith, Tony

Smith, Tony (23 Sept 1912)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
479 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1961 , Smith decided to forgo architecture in favor of sculpture. He made his first metal sculpture, The Black Box , in 1962 (0.57×0.84×0.64 m; Ottawa, N.G.). In addition to creating rectangular-based works, he combined complex solid modules, as in Amaryllis ( 1965 , 3.5×2.2×3.5 m; New York, Met.). His works are founded on principles of geometric abstraction and of primitive and modern architecture, as well as of science and mathematics; there are also frequent literary connections, such as in Gracehoper ( 1961–72 , 6.91×7.32×14.20 m; Detroit, MI,...

characteristic curve

characteristic curve   Reference library

Graham Saxby

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
491 words
Illustration(s):
4

...slope indicate an emulsion with good exposure latitude that will also allow push processing. In transparency material the density range between toe and shoulder indicates the maximum recordable subject contrast. Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 GS Graham Saxby See also densitometry ; sensitometry and film speed . Saxby, G. , The Science of Imaging: An Introduction ...

Hesselius, Gustavus

Hesselius, Gustavus (1682–1755)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
381 words

...religious, as well as interested in science and music. As she alertly appraises the viewer, his visibly intelligent and warmhearted spouse gives a hint of a mischievous smile. Probably no other painter in the colonies at this time could so effectively have rendered a fleeting expression. Hesselius was apparently inactive as a painter after about 1750 , perhaps entering retirement so his son, John Hesselius , could take over the business. http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-00404.html?a=1&n=hesselius&d=10&ss=0&q=2 (subscription) Biography, bibliography ...

Pereira, I. Rice

Pereira, I. Rice (1902–71)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
422 words

...art little recognized during the later years of her life, near the end of 1970 Pereira moved to Marbella, Spain, where she died. http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-00667.html?a=1&n=pennell&d=10&ss=0&q=2 (subscription) Biography, bibliography http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artist/?id=3761 Biography, images including Machine Composition #2 https://hirshhorn.si.edu/search-results/?edan_search_value=Irene%20Rice%20Pereira Images ...

acoustics

acoustics   Reference library

George Dodd

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,002 words

...sounds (e.g. speech and music) in differing ways, with the result that acoustical needs are varied. Speech only requires significant reverberation at mid-frequencies—where the main energy in speech lies—and, generally, this is much less than is needed for music (0.8–1.2 seconds RT for speech, cf. 1.8–2.5 seconds for orchestral music). Differing styles of music—linked as they were to the architecture of their period by the constraints that the existing acoustics imposed on their composers—can require major differences in reverberation (e.g. contrast the choral...

Homer, Winslow

Homer, Winslow (1836–1910)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,703 words

...0?rec=31&sid=310678&x=21172570&sort=9 Images including Eight Bells http://www.mfa.org/search?search_api_views_fulltext=winslow%20homer&f[0]=type%3Aobject Images including The Fog Warning https://www.pafa.org/collection/fox-hunt-1 Images including The Fox Hunt http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/382161?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=winslow&searchText=homer&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3Fhp%3D25%26wc%3Doff%26prq%3Dhenry%2Binman%26fc%3Doff%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26so%3Drel%26Query%3Dwinslow%2B%2...

Hofmann, Hans

Hofmann, Hans (1880–1966)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
837 words

..., begun in 1904 but not completed (and translated into English by Glenn Wessels ) until 1931 , Hofmann set forth basic principles. The Search for the Real, and Other Essays appeared in 1948 . http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-00962.html?a=1&f=%22hofmann%22&d=10&ss=0&q=2 (subscription) Biography, bibliography http://www.hanshofmann.org/ Biographical timeline, bibliography, images https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/artist/hans-hofmann Biography, images https://www.moma.org/artists/2698?locale=en Images http://collection.whitney.org/artis...

Golden section

Golden section   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,042 words
Illustration(s):
1

...economical in terms than any other proportion. It can be expressed algebraically as a/b = b (a+b) , or arithmetically as , or numerically as a progression 0.618, 1.618, 4.236 … Geometrically it may be constructed by various methods all of which involve making a geometrical equivalent of the numbers by means of a diagonal of a rectangle composed of two squares. From the diagonal of a rectangle of 1×2 add or subtract one and place the remainder against the longer side of the rectangle. It is traditionally held that Plato began the study of ‘The Section’ as...

Technical examination

Technical examination   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
15,158 words
Illustration(s):
5

...in the Field of Cultural History ’, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry , ccclxxxvii/3 (2007), pp. 737–47 V. Inorganic analysis . 1. Bulk elemental analysis. Bulk elemental analysis involves the determination of selected major elements (100–2%), minor elements (20.01%) and trace elements (0.01% to 0.1 parts per million). In choosing a technique for the analysis of works of art, a primary consideration is the need to minimize the damage to the object. Although a completely non-destructive method of analysis represents the ideal, this is very rarely...

medical photography

medical photography   Reference library

Raymond P. Clark

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,743 words

...so that the partnership between medicine and art can be said to be at least 4,500 years old. The teaching and study of human anatomy has always required illustration. The Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius ( 1514–64 ), in questioning the infallibility of Galen, elevated the science of human anatomy through direct observation of dissections of the human body. Vesalius sketched the vascular system and the skeleton, and encouraged professional artists to portray the human body. Such eminent artists as Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo , Raphael , and ...

Hunt, William Morris

Hunt, William Morris (31 March 1824)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,024 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by Fortune, Faith, Hope and Science. Hunt worked in experimental pigments and painted directly on to the wall; this technique, coupled with the excessive damp in the chamber, led to a rapid deterioration of the decoration. The murals were regarded by his contemporaries as the culmination of Hunt's career, yet the demands of the commission left him physically and emotionally debilitated and led to his nervous collapse and subsequent suicide in 1879 . William Morris Hunt The Peasant or the Daisy , oil on canvas, 1.16 × 0.90 m, 1852. Photograph by Herve...

papers, photographic

papers, photographic   Reference library

Roger W. Hicks

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,048 words

...out in practice. Beyond a certain point, obviously, there can be no increase in maximum density, and there is no point in using more silver. Actual coating weights vary from under 1 gram per square metre (gsm) to over 2 gsm. Most manufacturers use 1.6 to 1.8 gsm for projection (enlarging) papers, but a contact paper can use as little as 0.9 gsm and still produce a better maximum black than a projection paper with twice the coating weight: the secret lies in the smaller crystal size of the slower paper. There is also a widespread and substantially irrational...

Gilding

Gilding   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
8,871 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Cennino Cennini, late 14th-century Italian goldbeaters could obtain 145 leaves, similar in size to modern leaf, from a Venetian ducat, which, at that time, weighed about 3.5 g. The thickness of such leaf can be estimated to have been about 0.2μm (0.0002 mm). Modern leaf can be even thinner— c. 0.1μm if machine made, c. 0.05μm if hand beaten. At this thickness it is translucent, transmitting greenish light. Transfer gold leaf (patent gold) is loosely attached to sheets of tissue by pressing and can be used only for oil gilding. It was first made in strip...

Pigment

Pigment   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
13,153 words

...rev. 2/2001) H. Kühn : ‘ Verdigris and Copper Resinate ’, Studies in Conservation , xv (1970), pp. 12–36 E. H. Van’t Hul-Ehrnreich and P. B. Hallebeek : ‘A New Kind of Old Green Copper Pigments Found’, ICOM Conference: Madrid, 1972 T. C. Patton , ed.: Pigment Handbook , 3 vols (New York, 1973) R. J. Gettens and E. West Fitzhugh : ‘ Malachite and Green ­Verditer ’, Studies in Conservation , xix (1974), pp. 2–23 K. McLaren : The Colour Science of Dyes and Pigments (Bristol, 1983) K. Nassau : The Physics and Chemistry of Color (New York, 1983, rev. 2...

Silver

Silver   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2. Properties. Silver is highly malleable and ductile and is an outstanding conductor of electricity. The relatively low melting point, strength and fluidity of silver facilitate alloying, working and annealing. Silver is usually alloyed with copper to make it harder. Its high reflectivity led to its use in the production of mirrors from 1835 , and later in the coating of reflectors. Because it lubricates at high temperatures, it has been used to coat engine parts. The use of silver has contributed to several important advances in the history of science....

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