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Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...strong variation on both sides. Table 2. Total National Multiparty Elections Held After Independence (1960–2017) Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account...

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics   Reference library

Dominic Burbidge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Index (Range: 0 to 1) Burundi 8.20 483 0.530 Malawi 7.93 777 0.334 Mali 7.80 1,047 0.558 Burkina Faso 7.23 1,304 0.535 Tanzania 7.23 1,380 0.332 Mauritius 6.23 13,487 – Namibia 6.13 6,520 0.187 Mozambique 6.10 882 0.512 Kenya 5.97 1,522 0.229 Zimbabwe 5.73 – 0.172 Uganda 5.70 1,165 0.367 Algeria 5.60 7,339 – Zambia 5.40 1,475 0.328 Sierra Leone 5.37 1,171 0.439 South Africa 5.30 9,860 0.057 Cape Verde 5.23 3,818 – Ghana 5.17 1,764 0.144 Benin 4.80 1,364 0.412 Lesotho 4.50 1,692 0.156 Liberia 4.50 564 0.485 Togo 4.50 906 0.284 Nigeria 4.00 2,294 0.310 Botswana...

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,906 words
Illustration(s):
6

...electoral violence. Country List Armed Conflict (PRIO Types 2, 3, 4) Civil War (PRIO Type 3) Angola 1 1 Benin 0 0 Botswana 0 0 Burkina Faso 1 1 Burundi 1 1 Cameroon 1 1 Cape Verde 0 0 Central African Republic 1 1 Chad 1 1 Comoros 1 1 Djibouti 1 1 DRC 1 1 Equatorial Guinea 0 0 Eritrea 1 1 Ethiopia 1 1 Gabon 0 0 Gambia 0 0 Ghana 0 0 Guinea 1 1 Guinea Bissau 1 0 Ivory Coast 1 1 Kenya 0 0 Lesotho 1 0 Liberia 1 1 Madagascar 0 0 Malawi 0 0 Mali 1 1 Mauritania 1 1 Mauritius 0 0 Mozambique 1 1 Namibia 0 0 Niger 1 1 Nigeria 1 1 Republic of Congo 1 1 Rwanda 1 1...

Epistemic Communities

Epistemic Communities   Reference library

Peter M. Haas

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,846 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and the Web of Science website listed 725 references to the introduction of the 1992 IO publication. Figures 1 and 2 show the growth over time of references to epistemic communities in ISI Web of Knowledge tracked journals. By country, citations were overwhelmingly in English-language journals (95 percent), with 2 percent in German, 1 percent in French, 1 percent in Norwegian, and between 0.4 percent and 0.3 percent in Spanish and Portuguese (see Figure 3 ). Disciplinary interest has been quite varied, with political science accounting for 27...

Surveys and Their Use in Understanding African Public Opinion

Surveys and Their Use in Understanding African Public Opinion   Reference library

Jeffrey Conroy-Krutz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,130 words

...in fixed phone lines have stagnated—or declined—because of the explosion in mobile technology across the continent. In 1999 , there were only 0.6 mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 people in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2016 , this had increased to 73.0. In seven countries—Seychelles (161.2 subscriptions per 100 people), Gabon (149.6), South Africa (147.1), Botswana (146.2), Mauritius (143.7), Gambia (139.2), and Ghana (135.8)—rates of penetration, on this measure, exceed those for the OECD (117.7). Given these changes, an increasing number of surveys in...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in Kenya . Political Behavior , 1–24. Howard, M. M. , & Roessle, P. G. (2006). Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes . American Journal of Political Science , 50 (2), 365–381. Hyden, G. , & Leys, C. (1972). Elections and politics in single-party systems: The case of Kenya and Tanzania . British Journal of Political Science , 2 (4), 389–420. Kasfir, N. (1976). The shrinking political arena: Participation and ethnicity in African politics, with a case study of Uganda . Berkeley: University of California Press....

HIV and AIDS in Africa: Global Politics and Domestic Consequences

HIV and AIDS in Africa: Global Politics and Domestic Consequences   Reference library

Alan Whiteside

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,627 words

...21,794 28.1 Nigeria * 2.9% stable Poor 512,896 11.3 Rwanda 3.1% falling Good 168,254 NA Sierra Leone 1.7% rising Reasonable 20,905 0.8 South Sudan 2.7% rising Unknown 24,154 9.5 Tanzania 4.7% falling Reasonable 226,371 47.7 Togo 2.1% falling Unknown 24,594 8.1 2. Generalized, 5%–10% Equatorial Guinea * 6.2% rising Poor 8,715 90 Kenya 5.4% falling Good 1,174,884 29 Malawi 9.2% falling Good 218,441 2.6 Uganda 5.9% falling Good 9 13 3. Hyper-epidemic, >10% Botswana 21.9% stable Good 390,616 76.6 Eswatini 27.2% stable Good 96,931 34.2 Lesotho 25% stable Good...

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable   Reference library

Susan Dodsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,738 words
Illustration(s):
1

...institutes in six African countries . Higher Education Policy , 30 (2), 203–223. Roper, L. (2002). Achieving successful academic-practitioner research collaborations . Development in Practice , 12 (3–4), 338–345. Science Foundation Ireland . (n.d.). Research impact . Sklar, R. L. (1993). The African frontier for political science. In R. H. Bates , V. Y. Mudimbe , & J. O’Barr (Eds.), Africa and the disciplines: The contributions of research in Africa to the social sciences and humanities (pp. 83–110). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press....

Welfare Politics in Africa

Welfare Politics in Africa   Reference library

Jeremy Seekings

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,567 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Dabalen, & Gaddis, 2016 ; UN, 2015 ). This was a period of strong global economic growth in Africa. Africa’s poverty rate remained stubbornly high because the growth elasticity of poverty is small. Every 1% of economic growth reduces poverty by only 0.7% in Africa, compared to a reduction of 2% elsewhere in the world ( Bicaba et al., 2015 , p. 10). In Africa, many more people have been left behind by economic growth. Development has failed to be broadly inclusive. Social assistance programs cannot eliminate poverty, but they can and do reduce...

Party Systems in Africa

Party Systems in Africa   Reference library

Matthias Basedau

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,702 words

...Science Review , 55 (2), 294–307. Southall, R. (1998). The centralization and fragmentation of South Africa’s dominant party system. African Affairs , 97 (389), 443–469. Southall, R. (2013). Liberation movements in power: Party and state in Southern Africa . Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: James Currey and University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. Straus, S. , & Taylor, C. (2009, September). Democratization and electoral violence in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990–2007 . Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science...

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa   Reference library

Amy R. Poteete

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,080 words

...and Governance , 53 , 2–13. Falleti, T. (2005). A sequential theory of decentralization: Latin American cases in comparative perspective . American Political Science Review , 99 (3), 327–346. Fombad, C. M. (2018). Constitutional entrenchment of decentralization in Africa: An overview of trends and tendencies . Journal of African Law , 62 (2), 175–199. Gerring, J. , Thacker, S. C. , & Moreno, C. (2005). Centripetal democratic governance: A theory and global inquiry . American Political Science Review , 99 (4), 567–581. Gibson, E....

Education policy

Education policy   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,236 words

...systems, Roman Catholic systems, and by individual independent schools. In 2003 a total of 9607 schools enrolled 3.3 million students. There were 6930 government schools with 2.3 million students, reduced from 7535 schools in 1993 following some closures. There were 1698 Roman Catholic schools with 0.7 million students, and 979 independent schools with 0.4 million students. All schools must have state registration to operate: this is a low barrier, relating mainly to safety, not educational qualities. Government schools are state‐funded,...

The Problems of Economic Data in Africa

The Problems of Economic Data in Africa   Reference library

Morten Jerven

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,509 words

...1978 ), but the mainstream use of this dataset is dated to the 5.0 version, which was published in 1991 ( Summers & Heston, 1991 ). 2. In 1989, Stern noted that the third and fourth editions of the World Tables (1983, 1987) “are now available on magnetic tape”—the ease of access to data has increased dramatically. 3. Understanding National Accounts . 4. Data and Statistics at the IMF: Quality Assurances for Low-Income Countries . 5. The section “Problems of Design” draws heavily on chapter 2 in my doctoral thesis, later published as a monograph ( Jerven,...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

Christopher J. Fettweis

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,696 words

...How Serious the Threat?” International Security , 36, no. 2 (Fall 2011): 7–47. Europol . TE-SATs or EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Reports . The Hague, Netherlands: European Police Office, 2011, the most recent of which is available online at https://www.europol.europa.eu/content/te-sat-2013-eu-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report , accessed 7 October 2013. Fettweis, Christopher J. “Freedom Fighters and Zealots: Al-Qaeda in Historical Perspective.” Political Science Quarterly , 124, no. 2 (Summer 2009): 269–296. Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed . Bin Laden's...

Indian Ocean Region

Indian Ocean Region   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,204 words

...early 1980s the United States established its Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force and signed access agreements with a number of nearby African littoral states. In 1971 the UN's General Assembly passed a resolution declaring the Indian Ocean a “zone of peace,” with a vote of 61 to 0 (with 55 abstentions—from all permanent members of the Security Council except China). Since the end of the Cold War, the countries in the area have looked more toward regional economic cooperation. The Indian Ocean Commission was established in 1982 to help develop tuna fishing...

Corruption in African Politics

Corruption in African Politics   Reference library

Tom Lodge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,936 words

...Elections , 1 (1), 53–60. Lindberg, S. (2003). It’s our time to “chop”: Do elections in African feed neo-patrimonialism rather than contract it? Democratization , 10 (2), 121–140. McMullen, M. (1961). A theory of corruption. Sociological Review , 9 (2), 181–201. Nye, J. S. (1967). Corruption and development: A cost benefit analysis. American Political Science Review , 61 (2), 417–427. Olver, C. (2017). How to steal a city: The battle for Nelson Mandela Bay . Johannesburg, South Africa: Jonathan Ball. Osaba, S. (1996). Corruption in Nigeria:...

Comparative Advantage

Comparative Advantage   Reference library

Przemyslaw Kowalski

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,505 words

...for example, estimated that human and physical capital, as sources of comparative advantage, are responsible for, respectively, 3.1 percent and 2.8 percent of a typical country's welfare. Financial development, labor-market flexibility, industry-input concentration, relation-specific inputs, job complexity, and the Ricardian relative productivity differences are associated with, respectively, 2.1 percent, 0.6 percent, 2.8 percent, 1.7 percent, 4.9 percent, and 5.8 percent of welfare. Overall, Chor ( 2010 ) estimates that productivity and institutional...

Responses to Economic Crisis in Africa

Responses to Economic Crisis in Africa   Reference library

Peter M. Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,152 words

...declined by an average of 1.4% across sub-Saharan Africa from 1982 to 1987 , and continued to decline at the lower rate of 0.7% throughout the 1990s ( World Bank, 2019 ). However, a tipping point arrived in1995, when regional growth exceeded 2% for the first time in several years and was followed the next year with an increase of 5.3%. From 1995 to 2001 , GDP growth averaged nearly 3.5% in Africa, and per capita growth was positive at 0.75%. Recovery was anemic, with individual years of growth interspersed with contraction, though the trend was becoming more...

Democratic Rollback in Africa

Democratic Rollback in Africa   Reference library

Lise Rakner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,596 words

.... London, UK: Zed. V-Dem . (2018). Democracy for all? V-Dem annual democracy report . Wahman, M. (2014). Democratization and electoral turnovers in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. Democratization , 21 (2), 220–243. Waldner, D. , & Lust, E. L. (2018). Unwelcome change. Coming to terms with democratic backsliding . Annual Review of Political Science , 21 , 93–113. WJP . (2018). World justice project. Rule of law index 2017–2018 . Wood, N. (2008). Whose aid? Whose influence? China, emerging donors and the silent revolution in development assistance....

The African Union: Successes and Failures

The African Union: Successes and Failures   Reference library

Thomas Kwasi Tieku

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,506 words

...errors, hasty generalizations, and opportunistic assertions when reading materials on the AU. 2 Moreover, many of the AU-related publications are security-centric. They are written by people within the security consultancy system or by academics whose interests are related to security. Of the over 123 academic writings related to the AU compiled by major databases such as the Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, PAIS Index, and Simone, approximately 66% are related to peace and security. Only 44%...

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