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Rufinus

Subject: Religion

(fl. 399–401?), commonly called the Syrian, author of a Liber de Fide, described in the only known MS as the work of Rufinus, priest of the province of Palestine. The fact that ...

Rufinus

Rufinus   Reference library

Peter Bell

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... First dispatched by Anastasius I on an embassy to Qobad I ( 502 ), later assignments included (unsuccessful) negotiations over Justin I ’s proposed adoption of Qobad’s son Khosrow (525/6). With Hermogenes , however, he negotiated the Everlasting Peace of 530–2. He enjoyed cordial relations with Khosrow I and the Persian aristocracy . Peter Bell PRLE II, Rufinus 13. Greatrex and Lieu, 63, 81, 88, 91–7. Greatrex , RPW 169, 213–14. Dignas and...

Rufinus, Flavius

Rufinus, Flavius (395)   Reference library

David Natal

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., Flavius (d. 395 ) Magister Officiorum ( 388–92 ), consul ( 392 ), and Praefectus Praetorio under Theodosius I ( 392–5 ), and briefly regent for Theodosius’ son Arcadius . In 395 , during Alaric ’s invasion of Thrace, Rufinus rejected the assistance of Stilicho , who ordered Gainas to kill him. Rufinus was praised by Libanius but commented upon adversely by Zosimus , and was the object of a substantial psogos In Rufinum in two books by Claudian . Rufinus came from Gaul , was a pious Christian, and founded a martyrium and an...

Rufinus of Aquileia

Rufinus of Aquileia (345–c.410)   Reference library

Philip Amidon

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Rufinus in reply to Rufinus’ Apology against Jerome (which contain considerable biographical information, pejoratively expressed). Rufinus meanwhile continued his translation work after returning to Aquileia: Basil’s homilies and Gregory ’s discourses, the Sentences of Sextus , Adamantius’ De Recta in Deum Fide , Origen on Joshua, Judges, and Psalms 36–8, and (perhaps before his return to Aquileia) the letter to S. James attributed to Clement of Rome. His own Commentary on the Apostles’ Creed is usually dated c .401. In 402 or 403 Rufinus...

Alexandria

Alexandria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...is unlikely that there will ever be formal proof. A seemingly unbridgeable gap remains between textual sources and the evidence unearthed by archaeologists. In the western district of Rhakotis, the great sanctuary of Sarapis once stood on one of the few elevations of the city. Rufinus has left a quite detailed description from the fourth century ce . He wrote of colonnades, exedrae , and priests' cells built around the temple, whose walls were sheathed in marble and sheets of precious metal. Inside stood a colossal statue of the god. The only other...

Hermogenes

Hermogenes (535/6)   Reference library

Peter Bell

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

... (d. 535/6 ) Formerly assessor to Vitalian , he became Magister Officiorum (529–33, 535), consularis , and patricius (535). He and Rufinus negotiated the Everlasting Peace of 532 with the Persians. Peter Bell PLRE III, Hermogenes...

Frumentius

Frumentius   Reference library

David Phillipson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...probably c. 320–30. Rufinus of Aquileia ( HE X, 9–11) recorded that Frumentius entered the service of the Aksumite king and continued to serve his successor Ezana (whose mother served as a regent for him during his minority). Frumentius associated with a group of Christians at Aksum and, when the young King Ezana assumed full authority, went to Alexandria to seek the patriarch ’s appointment of a bishop for the Aksumite Christians. The Patriarch Athanasius appointed Frumentius himself. It is likely (although Rufinus does not specifically...

Sentences of Sextus

Sentences of Sextus   Reference library

Jane Lightfoot

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...collection of maxims first mentioned by Origen ( Contra Celsum , VIII, 30), who provides the terminus ante quem and indicates its early popularity with Christian readers. Its translation from Greek into Latin by Rufinus , c . 400 , disseminated it in the West, and Armenian and Syriac versions also exist. Rufinus notes an attribution to Xystus (Sextus), Bishop of Rome (martyred 258), thereby equipping the text with a Christian pedigree; but the alternative attribution to ‘Sixtus the philosopher’ eventually convinced Augustine (...

Eutropius

Eutropius (399)   Reference library

David Natal

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...quickly at the Constantinople court . He arranged Arcadius ’ marriage to Eudoxia , orchestrated the downfall of Rufinus ( Praefectus Praetorio 392–5), and gained Africa for Arcadius in 397. In autumn 399, after his unsuccessful campaign against Tribigild , Gainas forced the emperor to dismiss Eutropius. Removed from sanctuary in the Church of the Holy Wisdom , Eutropius was executed and his memory damned. Like Rufinus, he was the object of vigorous verse invective by Claudian , poet at the court of Honorius . David Natal PLRE II,...

Historia Monachorum in Aegypto

Historia Monachorum in Aegypto   Reference library

J. William Harmless

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...wonders’ of the New Testament and those of the monks of Egypt . The text offers valuable eyewitness accounts of the monastic settlements of Nitria and Kellia . The author of the Greek original is unknown, but he seems to have been connected with Rufinus of Aquileia ’s monastery on the Mount of Olives. Rufinus translated the work into Latin with modifications and added extra material based on his own experiences. J. William Harmless ed. A.-J. Festugière (with FT and comm.) (SubsHag 34, 1971). ET (with introd. by B. Ward) N. Russell , Lives of the...

Rufinianae

Rufinianae   Reference library

Benjamin Anderson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Suburb of Chalcedon , location of a church and monastery of the Apostles. Their construction is attributed to Rufinus ( Praefectus Praetorio Orientis, 392–5 ), who established a community of Egyptian monks there. The monastery was abandoned after his death, but reoccupied c .400 by S. Hypatius , who established himself at the head of a new community. Theodosius II twice visited the monastery, and the neighbouring palace became a frequent retreat of his pious sisters. In 403 the Synod of the Oak met at the Church of the Apostles....

Tatianus

Tatianus   Reference library

David Natal and Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Consul (391) and Praefectus Praetorio (388–92), Flavius Eutolmius Tatianus had a distinguished career in the imperial service, but in 393 Rufinus succeeded him as Praefectus Praetorio, had him exiled home to Lycia , and his son Proculus (then Praefectus Urbi at Constantinople ) executed. Tatianus’ name was erased from the bases of the imperial statues he erected at Aphrodisias ( LSA 164 and 166–7; Roueché, ALA inscr. 25–7); his descendant Tatianus, a Praeses of Caria , honoured him with verses and a portrait statue ( LSA 193; Roueché,...

Pamphilus of Caesarea

Pamphilus of Caesarea (240–310)   Reference library

Robert McEachnie

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...volumes ( Jerome , ep . 34, 1). Pamphilus was imprisoned in 307 during the Great Persecution . Just before his martyrdom (movingly described in Eusebius’ Martyrs of Palestine ) he wrote the Apology for Origen , which survives in a partial Latin translation made by Rufinus . Robert McEachnie CPG 1715–16: ed. (with FT) R. Amacker and É. Junod ( SC 464 and 465, 2002). ET T. Scheck (FC 120, 2010). É. Junod , ‘L’Apologie pour Origène de Pamphile’, SP 26 (1993),...

Gelasius of Caesarea

Gelasius of Caesarea (367–before 400)   Reference library

Peter van Nuffelen

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Bibliotheca , 89). Supposedly running from Diocletian to 387 or 395, this History has been seen as the first continuation of the Church History of Eusebius of Caesarea and as the main source for that of Rufinus . In fact, the extant fragments rely on Socrates and Rufinus, and are closely related to those of a Greek translation of Rufinus. The work read by Photius must therefore have been pseudepigraphical. Either the original work had been heavily interpolated or an unknown author composed a compilation about 4th-century church history in the...

Origenism and Origenist controversies

Origenism and Origenist controversies   Reference library

Catherine Chin

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and translated Origen’s works; he nonetheless maintained that Origen’s writings contained much that was useful (Jerome, ep . 85). Rufinus of Aquileia refused to condemn Origen, claiming that apparent divergences from orthodoxy in Origen’s writings were due to corrupt manuscripts (Rufinus, De Adulteratione Librorum Origenis ); Rufinus began to translate Origen’s works into Latin in 397. The quarrel between Jerome and Rufinus brought the controversy to Italy , and in 400, Pope Anastasius condemned Origen’s writings. After Epiphanius’ death in 403 and the...

Historia Tripartita

Historia Tripartita   Reference library

Brian Croke

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cassiodorus’ History covered the period from Constantine I to 439. The precise division of authorial labour and credit between Cassiodorus and Epiphanius is disputed. The History was set out in twelve books and was generally copied together with the Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia . It became one of the most frequently consulted and widespread texts of medieval Europe (157 extant manuscripts). Brian Croke ed. W. Jakob (with R. Hanslik), Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita (CSEL 71, 1952). R. Hanslik , ‘Epiphanius Scholasticus oder...

Mavia

Mavia (370)   Reference library

Konstantin Klein

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of her husband, Mavia became leader of an Arab tribe (perhaps the Tanukh) that raided the Limes Arabicus and the neighbouring provinces during the reign of the Emperor Valens . She is mentioned as a queen of the Saracens by several church historians, the earliest being Rufinus (XI, 6); they appear to have a common source, perhaps Gelasius of Caesarea . Mavia agreed to a peace treaty with the Romans after a Christian hermit, Moses, was consecrated as bishop over her people, and after her daughter was given in marriage to the Magister Equitum ,...

Frigidus, Battle of River

Frigidus, Battle of River   Reference library

Ilkka Syvänne

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Arbogast in the Julian Alps. Theodosius’ foederati and desertions from Eugenius’ army played a part, as did the Bora wind mentioned in Claudian ’s panegyric on the third consulate of Honorius (93–5), and also by Christian authors such as Ambrose ( In Pss . 36, 25), Rufinus ( HE XI, 30), and Orosius (VII, 35, 11–21), who present the battle as a victory over pagans for the Christian God of battles. Zosimus (IV, 55, 1–IV, 58, 6) provides a contrasting account. Modern historians disagree about these and other details including the length of...

Gainas

Gainas   Reference library

David Natal

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Gothic soldier and Comes Rei Militaris (395–9), having commanded troops for Theodosius I in the war against the usurper Eugenius in 394. He forced the downfall of the Praefectus Praetorio Rufinus in 395 and purportedly instigated the rebellion of Tribigild in 399, an occasion he used to force Arcadius to appoint him Magister Utriusque Militiae (399–400) and to dismiss the Praefectus Praetorio Eutropius . However, in Constantinople Gainas clashed with the Patriarch John Chrysostom and his troops were massacred by a popular revolt....

Chromatius of Aquileia

Chromatius of Aquileia (388–406)   Reference library

Robert McEachnie

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and leader in the northern Italian city of Aquileia . Chromatius led an ascetic group 369–72 which included Rufinus , Jerome , Heliodorus, and others ‘like a chorus of the blessed’ (Jerome, Chron. 247f. Helm). As a priest he spoke at the Council of Aquileia in 381 in favour of the Nicene position. Jerome credited Chromatius with eliminating the Arians in the city ( ep . 7). He mediated in the dispute between Jerome and Rufinus in 401 and funded works for both. His final act seems to have been to advocate on the part of John Chrysostom in...

Constantine, Vision of Cross of

Constantine, Vision of Cross of   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...to mark his soldiers’ shields with the ‘heavenly sign of God’. Some scholars conflate these events with a vision of Apollo which a panegyrist in 310 says Constantine saw in Gaul ( PanLat VI (VII), 21, 4–7). Others detect an assurance of Christian eschatological hope. Rufinus , 90 years later, is the first to call it a conversion experience ( HE IX, 9); such interpretations lived long in legend ( see Constantine, Legends of). Oliver Nicholson Barnes , Constantine , 74–80. O. [P.] Nicholson , ‘Constantine’s Vision of the Cross’, VigChrist 54/3...

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