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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

...worst of the kitsch which was widely produced to satisfy the Nazi cultural system. Literature of other kinds was published only in translation and then in order to demonstrate that in the world outside ‘negative’ Jewish influences were perverting art: thus the American pessimist Theodore Dreiser was much recommended and Somerset Maugham was widely read. These involuntary cultural links between Germany and the outside world were severed in 1943 when the pressures of war reduced all literature to propaganda of one type or another. The Nazis regarded the cinema...

The Philippine War

The Philippine War (1899–1902)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...that made this conflict unique. [See also Jungle Warfare ; Philippines, U.S. Military Involvement in the .] James A. LeRoy , The Americans in the Philippines , 2 vols., 1914. John M. Gates , Schoolbooks and Krags: The United States Army in the Philippines, 1898–1902 , 1973. Richard E. Welch , Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine‐American War, 1899–1902 , 1979. Brian M. Linn , The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899–1902 , 1989. Glenn A. May , Battle for Batangas: A Philippine Province at War , 1991. Brian...

Music, War and the Military in

Music, War and the Military in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... A Lincoln Address ( 1973 ). Very few works emerged from the Spanish‐American War , although some popular songs such as Charles K. Harris 's Just Break the News to Mother , Good‐bye, Dolly Gray , and Joe Hayden and Theodore Mertz 's popular There’ll be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight —which became the official song of Theodore Roosevelt 's Rough Riders—were well established. It was finally during the Spanish‐American War that piano battle pieces reached their demise after having dominated American war music during the nineteenth century. In their...

Academies, Service

Academies, Service   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...also African Americans in the Military ; Education, Military ; Leadership, Concepts of Military ; Women in the Military. ] Stephen E. Ambrose , Duty, Honor, Country: A History of West Point , 1966. Dave Richard Palmer , The River and the Rock , 1969. John P. Lovell , Neither Athens Nor Sparta? The American Service Academies in Transition , 1979. James L. Morrison, Jr. , The Best School in the World , 1986. Theodore J. Crackel , The Illustrated History of West Point , 1991. George S. Pappas , To The Point: The United States Military Academy,...

Pacific campaign

Pacific campaign (1941–5)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,211 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the main apparent victor in the Pacific campaign. Richard Overy / Hugh Bicheno Dower, J. , War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York, 1986). Iriye, A. , The Origins of the Second World War in the Pacific (London, 1987). Rhodes, R. , The Making of the Atomic Bomb (London, 1986). Thorne, C. , The Far Eastern War: States and Societies, 1941–1945 (London, 1986). Vat, D. van der , The Pacific Campaign: The US–Japanese Naval War, 1941–1945 (London, 1992). Werrell, K. E. , Blankets of Fire: US Bombers over Japan during WW II ...

political economy and war

political economy and war   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...clearest illustrations of the tight link between war and statism. The four great centralizers in her history were Abraham Lincoln , Woodrow Wilson , Franklin D. Roosevelt , and Lyndon Johnson , not coincidentally associated with the four greatest wars the nation has fought. Theodore Roosevelt was of a similar persuasion, but all he could manage was the imperial adventure in the Philippines ( see Philippines insurrection ), so we cannot know what he might have done given the chance. There is no chance here of confusing cause and effect—all were firmly...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
31,203 words
Illustration(s):
6

...II , then of Richard I , began his far more detailed Deeds of Henry II ; he took this up to 1192 before revising and expanding it into a new work, the Chronica , which he continued to 1201 . A principal source for the continental wars of Henry and Richard, as well as for Richard’s crusade (in which the author participated until August 1191 ), Hoveden inserted much valuable record material, such as lists of prisoners taken in the “great war” of 1173–1174 and royal newsletters concerning key campaigns or engagements, such as Richard’s victory at...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...that the range of the ships be limited, so that no taint of imperialism attached to them. War with Spain in 1898 seemed to confirm the importance of a modern fleet, however, and thereafter naval building increased steadily, thanks in part to the strong support of President Theodore Roosevelt . U.S. naval expenditures, which amounted to 7 percent of total federal spending in 1890 , consumed 21 percent in 1905 . By the eve of World War I, the U.S. fleet was third in the world. It had been intended that it be second, behind only Great Britain. In the...

Medical Practice in the Military

Medical Practice in the Military   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...ships. The next year, medical officers were given commissioned rank. Later, medical officers were given command authority over the hospital ships and crews, a controversial decision that was ultimately resolved in favor of the nautical surgeons by the commander in chief, Theodore Roosevelt . In 1908 , the army created the Medical Reserve Corps, an augmentation organization that was separate from the National Guard. A veterinary corps was added to the medical department. Not only were veterinarians highly useful in promoting the health and utility of...

Revolutionary War (1775–83)

Revolutionary War (1775–83)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Americans: The Loyalists in the American Revolution , 1969. Richard H. Kohn , Eagle and Sword , 1975. Paul H. Smith , ed., Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789 , 25 vols., 1976–98. Jack N. Rakove , The Beginnings of National Politics , 1979. David P. Szatmary , Shays' Rebellion , 1980. Jonathan R. Dull , A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution , 1985. Robert A. Gross , ed., In Debt to Shays , 1993. Colin G. Calloway , The American Revolution in Indian Country , 1995. Stephen E. Patterson Revolutionary War (1775–83): Changing...

World War II (1939–45)

World War II (1939–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...David Reynolds , Warren F. Kimball , and A. O. Chubarian , Allies at War: The Soviet, American and British Experience, 1939–1945 , 1994. Gerhard Weinberg , A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II , 1994. Richard Overy , Why the Allies Won , 1995. Stephen E. Ambrose , American Heritage New History of World War II , 1997. Stephen E. Ambrose , Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany , 1997. Tom Brokaw , The Greatest Generation , 1998. Mark A. Stoler World War II (1939–45): Domestic...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
40,841 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in this sense. Another consequence of the diffusion of new cultural models was the flourishing, unknown beforehand, of military treatises. The first example, from the beginning of the ( 1300 )s, was Les Enseignements of Theodore Paleologue (Paleologi Teodoro), Marquis of Montferrat , a prince of Greek origin. In this work, Theodore brought together many experiences he had on the battlefield, providing precious testimony of the actual varieties of the conduct of war. More abstract and theoretical, on the other hand, are the works from the ( 1400 )s of...

Strategy

Strategy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of one kind of military force over another, e.g., Gen. Billy Mitchell 's campaign to supplant battleships with bombers. In the assessment of one naval historian, the writings of Mahan himself were “weapons in rough‐and‐tumble debates between proponents and opponents of naval expansionism, colonialism, and aggressive mercantile capitalism.” Secretaries and assistant secretaries of the navy, occasionally even presidents, have thought about making naval strategy their job. Benjamin Stoddert , Gideon Welles , Theodore Roosevelt , Franklin D. Roosevelt , and ...

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt  

(1858–1919)US Republican statesman, 26th President of the USA (1901–09). He was elected Vice-President in 1900, succeeding William McKinley in 1901 following the latter's assassination. At home ...
William Howard Taft

William Howard Taft  

(1857–1930)US Republican statesman and twenty-seventh president of the USA (1909–13).The son of judge and former cabinet minister Alphonso Taft (1810–91), William Taft studied at the universities of ...
William McKinley

William McKinley  

(1843–1901)US Republican statesman, 25th President of the USA (1897–1901). He supported US expansion into the Pacific, fighting the Spanish–American War of 1898 which resulted in the acquisition of ...
Red Cross

Red Cross  

International agency concerned with the alleviation of human suffering. Its founder, the Swiss philanthropist Henri Dunant (1828–1910), horrified by the suffering he saw at the Battle of Solferino, ...
Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover  

(1874–1964)US Republican statesman and thirty-first president of the USA (1929–33).Hoover was born in West Branch, Iowa, to Quaker parents, who were both dead by the time he was nine years old. ...
Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History

Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History   Reference library

Carolyn Stephenson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,906 words

...the Institut Francais de Polemologie was founded in 1945 . Bert Roling was a central figure in polymologie (war research), thinking its study was essential to the development of international law, and introduced it to the Netherlands. In the US in the same year, psychologist Theodore Lentz founded the Peace Research Laboratory, at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri, to encourage the mobilization of social scientists for a science of peace that would bring about a scientific revolution involving both changes in fact and value. A letter published...

Human Rights and History

Human Rights and History   Reference library

Micheline Ishay

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,638 words

...to the recurrent challenge posed by adherents of cultural and national relativism. The Controversy over the Right to Self-Determination and the Imperial Age The liberal nationalist writings of Jonathan Gottlieb Fichte , Giuseppe Mazzini , John Stuart Mill , and Theodore Herzl , among other social thinkers of the nineteenth century, foreshadowed the twentieth century’s quest to codify the right to self-determination ( Ishay 1995a ). If generally invoked throughout nineteenth century Europe against imperial domination or ethnic oppression, the...

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