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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Campaign Finance Reform

Campaign Finance Reform   Reference library

R. Sam Garrett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,703 words

...It does not necessarily represent the views of the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, or any other institution with which the author is affiliated.>] [ see also Elections, Election Law ; Elections, Presidential Elections ; Nixon, Richard M. ; Obama, Barack ; and Roosevelt, Theodore . ] Bibliography Corrado, Anthony, et al. The New Campaign Finance Sourcebook . Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005. Garrett, R. Sam. The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues . Washington, D.C.: Congressional...

Censorship

Censorship   Reference library

Francis G. Couvares and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,323 words

...The ACLU–Holmes–Chafee approach insisted that the First Amendment was meant primarily to serve the social good, by assuring a hearing for unpopular political views, not to protect individual liberty. This approach gave short shrift to traditional libertarianism, represented by Theodore Schroeder of the National Free Speech League, for example, which insisted on the individual’s freedom of expression, political, sexual, or otherwise. In a tactically shrewd move, Progressive Era intellectuals offered their socially based argument for free speech in an era not...

Square Deal

Square Deal   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
378 words

...Act, the Pure Food and Drug Act, and the Hepburn Railroad Act, which regulated industries and prevented trusts from fixing prices or providing consumers with unsafe products. See also Roosevelt, Theodore Sources Richard Hofstadter , The Conservative as Progressive,” in The American Political Tradition (New York: Knopf, 1948). George W. Mowry , Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press,...

primaries, Presidential

primaries, Presidential   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
961 words

...Presidential ; Kennedy, John F. ; Nixon, Richard M. ; Nominating conventions, Presidential ; Wilson, Woodrow Sources Rhodes Cook , United States Presidential Primary Elections 1968–1996: A Handbook of Election Statistics (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books, 2000). James W. Davis , “Presidential Primaries: Road to the White House” (West-port, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980). Austin Ranney , “Curing the Mischiefs of Faction: Party Reform in America” (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975). Byron E. Shafer , “Quiet Revolution: The Struggle for...

Taft, William Howard

Taft, William Howard (1921–30)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,048 words

...in 1913 after Taft left office. Theodore Roosevelt split with his protégé in 1910 after Taft fired Gifford Pinchot, chief of the Division of Forestry and a defender of Roosevelt's conservation policies. Taft sided with his secretary of the interior, Richard Ballinger, who had opened for sale a tract of public land in Alaska that Roosevelt had previously designated not for sale. (Within a year, after a public outcry, Ballinger was forced to resign and the sale was canceled.) In the fall of 1910 ex-President Theodore Roosevelt made a nationwide tour to...

Johnson, Lyndon B.

Johnson, Lyndon B.   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,732 words

...casualties passed the 40,000 mark. Johnson helped his Vice President, Hubert Humphrey , secure the Democratic nomination, but his war policies hurt Humphrey, who lost the election to Richard Nixon . In giving up his office after one elected term, Johnson followed the pattern set by other Vice Presidents who took office after the death of an incumbent. Although Theodore Roosevelt , Calvin Coolidge , and Harry Truman were subsequently elected in their own right, none of them ran immediately for a second elected term. In January 1969 , an exhausted and...

Republican Party

Republican Party   Reference library

Nicol C. Rae

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,770 words

...class. Moderate northeastern Republican reformers such as President Theodore Roosevelt had a dramatic impact on national American politics. In the western states a more radical Progressivism, represented by LaFollette and California Governor Hiram Johnson , prevailed. In the 1912 election the Republican Party split between the more conservative supporters of President William Howard Taft and the Progressive wing of the party, which rallied behind former president Theodore Roosevelt . TR subsequently ran on a Third Party “Progressive” ticket and...

election campaigns, Presidential

election campaigns, Presidential   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,424 words

...1995). James E. Campbell , American Campaign: U.S. Presidential Campaigns and the National Vote (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2000). Kathleen Hall Jamieson , Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction, and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). Kathleen Hall Jamieson , Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising , 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). Elizabeth Kolbert , “Test-marketing a President”, New York Times Magazine , August 30, 1992. Richard M. McCormick , ...

Presidency: Governing

Presidency: Governing   Reference library

James P. Pfiffner

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,162 words

...presidents and presidential candidates. Beginning with Richard Nixon, presidential candidates raised most of their own money, rather than depending on their party organizations for fund-raising. Candidates emphasized their own qualifications for office, rather than their party allegiance. The presidency had also become more closely linked to the people. Constitutional amendments expanded the franchise to include African Americans, women, and people who were at least eighteen years old. Although Theodore Roosevelt in his speeches appealed directly to voters,...

Third Parties

Third Parties   Reference library

Paul Allen Beck

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,178 words

...Some, typically on the left, have been based on broad ideologies and doctrines (e.g., the Communist, Green, Populist, Socialist, and Socialist Workers parties). Others are identified with a single issue (such as the Greenback, Prohibition, and Right-to-Life parties), or confined to a single state (the Democratic Farmer-Labor Party in Minnesota , the Peace and Freedom Party in California ). Third parties have emerged as transient electoral vehicles for a particular leader (Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressive Party in 1912 , George Wallace ’s American...

Cabinet Departments

Cabinet Departments   Reference library

John P. Burke

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,673 words

...feature of contemporary American government. [ See also Presidency: Governing . ] Bibliography Borelli, MaryAnne. The President’s Cabinet: Gender, Power, and Representation . (Boulder, Colo., 2002). Cohen, Jeffrey E. The Politics of the US Cabinet: Representation in the Executive Branch, 1789–1984 . (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988). Fenno, Richard F., Jr. The President’s Cabinet : An Analysis in the Period from Wilson to Eisenhower . (Cambridge, Mass., 1959). Humphrey’s Executor v. United States, 295 US 602 (1935). Lee, Christopher. “ Confirmations Fail to Reach...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,733 words

...293 ( 1926 ). Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership from FDR to Carter . (New York, 1980). Oberdorfer, Don. “ Behind the House Vote on ‘the Secret War ,’” Washington Post , August 6, 1983, A13. Powell, Colin. “ Remarks .” Forum on National Security Advisers, Brookings Institution. (1999). Powell, Colin, and Joseph E. Perisco. My American Journey: An Autobiography . (New York, 1995). Scowcroft, Brent. “ Remarks .” Forum on National Security Advisers, Brookings Institution. (1999). Sorensen, Theodore C. Decision-Making in the...

Vice President, US

Vice President, US   Reference library

Joel K. Goldstein

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,235 words

...Millard Fillmore , Andrew Johnson , and Chester A. Arthur ) became “everything” upon the death of the president, but none was elected to a presidential term. The twentieth century brought subtle but significant changes. The office began to attract more imposing figures (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt , Charles Gates Dawes , and John Nance Garner , among others), and some vice presidents began to attend Cabinet meetings. Vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency were subsequently elected to their own term ( Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge , and Harry S....

Japan–United States Relations

Japan–United States Relations   Reference library

Yoshi Tsurumi and Wei-Chin Lee

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,222 words

...isolation. (The United States wanted Japan to provide coaling stations for American ships in the new age of steamships. To this day, the Japanese use “Black Ships” as a metaphor for unwanted external pressures.) This first phase ended around 1905 , when President Theodore Roosevelt mediated the peace treaty concluding the Russo-Japanese War. By this time the United States had become increasingly concerned about potential competition with Japan for Pacific hegemony. In 1903 , President Roosevelt prophetically declared, “the United States ...

Grand Strategies, US

Grand Strategies, US   Reference library

Henry R. Nau

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,671 words

... Washington ’s famous farewell address and influenced the new republic’s early relationships with Europe. The nationalist tradition emerged with Andrew Jackson and the relentless expansion of the new republic across the continent. The realist grand strategy picks up with Theodore Roosevelt and the eruption of the United States on the world stage as a global power. The liberal internationalist tradition associates with Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt and America ’s leadership in spreading democracy through the development of universal...

Religion and Politics

Religion and Politics   Reference library

Ray Suarez

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,497 words

...(1989). Balmer, Randall. The Making of Evangelicalism: From Revivalism to Politics and Beyond . (Waco, Tex., 2010). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 347 US 48 (1954). Land, Richard D. The Divided States of America: What Liberals and Conservatives Get Wrong about Faith and Politics . (Nashville, Tenn., 2011). Lee v. Weisman, 505 US 577 (1992). Marty, Martin E., and Jonathan Moore. Politics, Religion, and the Common Good: Advancing a Distinctly American Conversation about Religion’s Role in Our Shared Life . (San Francisco, 2000). Mohler, R....

Principal Office Holders, United States of America

Principal Office Holders, United States of America   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
421 words

...Grover Cleveland Democrat 1897 William McKinley Republican 1901 Theodore Roosevelt Republican 1909 William H. Taft Republican 1913 Woodrow Wilson Democrat 1921 Warren G. Harding Republican 1923 Calvin Coolidge Republican 1929 Herbert C. Hoover Republican 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt Democrat 1945 Harry S. Truman Democrat 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican 1961 John F. Kennedy Democrat 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson Democrat 1969 Richard M. Nixon Republican 1974 Gerald R. Ford Republican 1977 James E. Carter Democrat 1981 Ronald Reagan Republican 1989 George Bush...

Presidency, U.S.

Presidency, U.S.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,690 words

...and often discussed separately, are in essence one. (See also Bureaucratic Politics ; Carter, Jimmy ; Congress, U.S. ; Constitution ; Eisenhower, Dwight D .; International Systems ; Psychology and Politics ; Supreme Court of the United States ; Truman, Harry S .) Richard E. Neustadt , Presidential Power (New York, 1960). James David Barber , The Presidential Character: Predicting Performance in the White House (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972). Erwin C. Hargrove and Michael Nelson , Presidents, Politics, and Policy (Baltimore and New York,...

Square Deal

Square Deal  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Square Deal was the term used by Theodore Roosevelt in his campaigns against financial trusts, business interests that controlled markets or restrained trade, and the domination of the U.S. ...
Charles Fairbanks

Charles Fairbanks  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Vice President• Born: May 11, 1852, Unionville Center, Ohio• Political party: Republican• Education: Ohio Wesleyan University, B.A., 1872• Military service: none• Previous government service: U.S. ...

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