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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Ely, Richard Theodore

Ely, Richard Theodore (1854–1943)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,385 words

..., Richard Theodore ( 1854–1943 ) Richard T. Ely was born in Ripley, New York on 13 April 1854 . He died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. Although he began his undergraduate studies at Dartmouth College, he completed them as a philosophy student at Columbia College in 1876 . The opportunity to study in Germany was provided in 1877 , and he began studies there in philosophy at the University of Halle. The next year he decided to switch to the University of Heidelberg to study economics under Karl Knies . He completed his Ph.D. in 1879 , but...

Socialism and American Exceptionalism

Socialism and American Exceptionalism   Reference library

Michael Kazin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,838 words

...of its counterparts in Europe. But its ranks were adorned not only with dirt farmers and factory workers but also with notable thinkers and artists. At various times the SP's card-carrying members included Margaret Sanger, Walter Lippmann, John Dewey, W. E. B. Du Bois, Jack London, Carl Sandburg, Theodore Dreiser, Helen Keller, Eugene O’Neill, Isadora Duncan, Clarence Darrow, and Charlie Chaplin. Chapters of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society sprouted on dozens of campuses, although few sons and daughters of the working class could yet afford to attend...

Secretaries of Department of Labor

Secretaries of Department of Labor   Reference library

James G. Cassedy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,265 words

...introduced a bill to merge the Departments of Commerce and Labor into one department, to be called the Department of Commerce and the Workforce. The idea had a precedent: between 1903 and 1913 a joint Department of Commerce and Labor existed. Oscar S. Straus, who served as Theodore Roosevelt's secretary of commerce and labor, justified the cabinet's addressing commerce and labor with one department by giving an argument that subsequently became a standard one for Republican-appointed secretaries of labor: “Labor and capital were two arms of industry, the...

Wartime Economic Regulation

Wartime Economic Regulation   Reference library

Joseph A. McCartin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
3,088 words

...action by the federal government. Federal regulation expanded so quickly in 1917–1918 because it built on the momentum of previous Progressive Era reforms. During the war, federal regulation in areas already affected by legislation enacted during the administrations of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson increased dramatically, yet in a way that also bore another characteristic of the Progressive Era: reformers preferred voluntarist solutions to problems and turned to government regulation only when voluntarism proved unable to provide results. The War...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Russell R. Menard, Stephanie A. Carpenter, Ginette Aley, David E. Conrad, and Patrick M. Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
7,222 words

...Rural America ( 1995 ), farm men and women seemed out of step with an industrialized society and thus represented a problem to be studied. Once seen as the backbone of American society, rural America and its institutions now appeared more like a backwater. In 1908 , President Theodore Roosevelt appointed the Country Life Commission to propose ways to improve rural life and keep young people from leaving the farm. The commission's 1909 report identified substandard schools, poor roads, inadequate communication, and social isolation as significant problems in...

Davis, Harold Thayer

Davis, Harold Thayer (1892–1974)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
779 words

... Charles Roos , left in 1937 , Davis took his place as acting research director at Cowles and professor of econometrics at Colorado College for several months, until Davis moved to Northwestern. Davis then held the title of adviser to the Cowles Commission for two years, until Theodore Yntema became research director when the Commission moved to the University of Chicago. In 1941 , Davis published important books on The Analysis of Economic Time-Series and The Theory of Econometrics , the first use of the word econometrics in a book title in English ( Jan...

Children

Children   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,875 words

...malnutrition and a subsistence standard of living. Consequently, several economists and demographers have developed models to analyze family behavior in an attempt to understand the causes of the demographic transition that accompanied economic modernization. Theodore Schultz (1973, 1974) and Richard Easterlin (1985) have created a model where the number of children born to a mother, and survive, is thought to be determined by the interactions between the supply and the demand for children. Therefore, fertility is affected by the parents' motivation for...

Laughlin, James Laurence

Laughlin, James Laurence (1850–1933)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,174 words

...establishment of the American Economics Association and was one of the more vocal opponents of the type of economics that Richard T. Ely and others involved in the founding of the latter Association represented ( Coats 1961 ). Laughlin was one of the last of the members of the Political Economy Club to join the American Economics Association and was never elected as its president. Bibliography (with H. Adams , H. C. Lodge , and E. Young ), Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law (1876). The History of Bimetallism in the United States (1885). ‘ Gold and Prices since...

Hadley, Arthur Twining

Hadley, Arthur Twining (1856–1930)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,793 words

.... His early education was shaped by his father, a professor of Greek at Yale. His influences were many, and include interactions with his student and later colleague Irving Fisher , who would become one of the leading economists of the early twentieth century, as well as Richard T. Ely , John R. Commons , Mill, Jevons, Menger, Wieser, Böhm-Bawerk, and William Graham Sumner , Hadley's professor at Yale. As noted by Davidson and Ekelund ( 1994 : 23), Hadley's writings echoed concerns of many twentieth and twenty-first century economists, including Alchian...

Child, Josiah

Child, Josiah (1630–99)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,537 words

...if it exported goods of greater labour content (value added) than it imported. This idea would appear in many other economic tracts and books during the eighteenth century, for example in the work of James steuart late in the century, but perhaps most explicitly formulated by Theodore Janssen in his Maxims of Trade ( 1713 ). It is often stated that Child was not a very systematic thinker and writer. However, he emphasized production and employment as the main progenitors of material wealth and national Power, and was one of the first writers in a line of...

Climate and Climate History

Climate and Climate History   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Studies 32.2–3 (1999), 261–279. O'Hara, Sarah , and Sarah E. Metcalfe . Reconstructing the Climate of Mexico from Historical Records . Holocene 5.4 (1995), 485–490. Pfister, Christian , Brázdil Rudolf , and Rüdiger Glaser , eds. Climatic Variability in Sixteenth Century Europe and Its Social Dimension . Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1999. Richards, John F. The Unending Frontier: Environmental History in the Early Modern World . Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2001. Rotberg, Robert I. , and Theodore K. Rabb , eds. Hunger and History: The Impact of Changing...

Fisher, Irving

Fisher, Irving (1867–1947)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,645 words

...for economic reforms, conscious of a responsibility to improve the world and confident of his ability to overcome daunting obstacles. He strove tirelessly to make his monetary theorizing empirically relevant, and to make it the basis for policy reforms. Appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt to the National Conservation Commission, Fisher wrote a Report on National Vitality, its Wastes and Conservation , published by the U.S. Senate in 1909 . How to Live , edited by Fisher , appeared in twenty-one editions from 1915 to 1945 . The first nineteen...

Telephone Industry

Telephone Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,599 words
Illustration(s):
1

...service, and their subscribers at the turn of the century did not appear to care. At the turn of the twentieth century, independents controlled more of the U.S. national market for local telephone service, where the vast bulk of the traffic was carried, than Bell did. Theodore Vail , who had been with AT&T in the 1880s and was brought back by Morgan in 1908 , embraced a vision of integrated local/long-distance service of national scope under the aegis of a single corporation—his original definition of “universal service”—and not the welter of...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,892 words
Illustration(s):
1

...mule for cotton spinning, where the inventor, Richard Roberts , was funded by Lancashire cotton manufacturers to break the power of the expensive and scarce mule spinners. A somewhat overlapping literature considers the American system of manufactures that developed during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries ( Hounshell , 1984; Rosenberg , 1969 ). From the early years of the nineteenth century, some branches of U.S. manufacturing established principles of interchangeable parts and standardization, e.g., in guns, clocks, and sewing machines. These...

Antitrust

Antitrust   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,098 words

...the way to public ownership of industry. Both sides concurred nonetheless that government intervention on the scale of American-type antitrust legislation was unnecessary, even ill-advised. In contrast, not only were most American economists—including John Bates Clark and Richard Ely —less sanguine about whether such new corporate giants as Standard Oil were subject to competitive pressures, but they broadly concurred that some form of government intervention was essential. Moreover, once the consequences of the merger wave became apparent, American...

American Indian Economies

American Indian Economies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,159 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Frances F. The Aztecs of Central Mexico: An Imperial Society . New York, 1982. Berdan, Frances F. , and Patricia R. Anawalt . The Essential Codex Mendoza . Berkeley, 1997. Berdan, Frances , Richard Blanton , Elizabeth Boone , et al. Aztec Imperial Strategies . Washington, D.C., 1996. Carrasco, Pedro . La economía del México prehispánico. In Economía, política e ideología en el México prehispánico , edited by Pedro Carrasco and Johanna Broda , 15–76. Mexico, 1978. Davies, Nigel . The Aztecs: A History . Norman, Okla., 1973. Harvey, Herbert H. Land...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,686 words
Illustration(s):
4

...SSSR/Rossii s drevneishikh vremën do 1917 g . 5 vols. Moscow, 1987–. Got'e, Iu. V. Zamoskovnyi krai v 17 veke . Moscow, 1937. Hellie, Richard . Muscovite Society [Readings for Introduction to Russian Civilization] . Chicago, 1967, 1970. Hellie, Richard . Enserfment and Military Change . Chicago, 1971. Hellie, Richard . Slavery in Russia, 1450–1725 . Chicago, 1982. Hellie, Richard , trans. The Muscovite Law Code (Ulozhenie) of 1649 . Irvine, Calif., 1988. Hellie, Richard . The Economy and Material Culture of Russia, 1600–1725 . Chicago, 1999....

Public Utilities

Public Utilities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,894 words
Illustration(s):
2

...emerged as a crucible for information policy debates on topics ranging from pricing and access to surveillance. It is hardly coincidental that Theodore N. Vail —the visionary telephone executive who during the 1900s made “universal service” a policy goal at AT&T—spent several formative years as superintendent of the Railway Mail Service, or, for that matter, that electronic messages are known not as e-grams but as e-mail. Among the most influential postal policy precedents has been the uniform pricing scheme that the British postal system adopted in 1840 on...

Human Capital

Human Capital   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,914 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Britain, 1870 to the 1990s . Cambridge, 1999. A concise survey of contrasting views regarding whether education contributed to Britain's relative decline over the past century and provides a useful case study of how human capital can influence economic performance. Schultz, Theodore W. The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria . Journal of Economic Literature 13.3 (September 1975), 827–846. Significant for its exposition of an important mechanism through which human capital can influence economic performance. Snell, K. D. M. The...

Environment

Environment   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,867 words
Illustration(s):
1

...consequences. Fisherman leaning against a stranded fishing boat looking at abandoned freighters in the desert, 1989. (© Novosti/Lehtikova/Woodfin Camp and Associates, New York) Polluted water also flows through countries. In 1924 , Gifford Pinchot , who had helped Theodore Roosevelt establish and develop the National Forests and National Park Service to conserve valuable resources, worked successfully with the National Coast Anti-Pollution League to get an international oil-dumping treaty to protect the coastlines of New England from others'...

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