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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...among them the phenomenally successful, though critically battered, The Greening of America ( 1969 ), by Charles A. Reich , and The Making of a Counter Culture ( 1969 ), by Theodore Roszak . Both were studies of youth as revolutionaries overturning the mechanistic, technocratic world, but both had environmental implications. A few years later, Roszak contributed the foreword to E. F. Schumacher 's Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered ( 1973 ), another publishing sensation, which in its advocacy of “intermediate technology” suggested that...

Climate Change Conspiracy Theories

Climate Change Conspiracy Theories   Reference library

Joseph E. Uscinski, Karen Douglas, and Stephan Lewandowsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the United States (think, for example, Theodore Roosevelt’s role in conservation or Richard Nixon’s role in creating the Environmental Protection Agency) ( Dunlap & McCright, 2008 ). This began to change in the 1970s and more noticeably in the mid-1990s when opinions both in Congress and in the public began to polarize along party lines ( Brulle et al., 2012 ; Dunlap, Xiao, & McCright, 2001 ; Hetherington, 2001 ; Shipan & Lowry, 2001 ). Historically, many issues in American politics have polarized over time (e.g., Carmines & Stimson, 1989 ); however...

Hunting

Hunting   Reference library

Todd J. BRINKMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,968 words

... VerCauteren, Kurt C. ; Dolbeer, Richard A. ; & Gese, Eric M. (2005). Identification and management of wildlife damage. In Clait E. Braun (Ed.), Techniques for wildlife investigations and management (pp. 740–778). Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society. Williams, Steve . (2010). Wellspring of wildlife funding: How hunter and angler dollars fuel wildlife conservation. The Wildlife Professional , 4 , 35–38. Wilson, R. L. (2010). Theodore Roosevelt: Hunter-Conservationist . New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ...

Drug Production and Trade

Drug Production and Trade   Reference library

Pierre-Arnaud CHOUVY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,341 words

...at the instigation of President Theodore Roosevelt , the International Opium Commission was convened in Shanghai in 1909 and the International Opium Convention, confining the use of opiates and cocaine to medicinal purposes, was signed at The Hague Conference on 23 January 1912 . This prohibition has created the world’s most lucrative illicit market for some psychoactive substances and encouraged their production and trafficking. As a result, the global war on drugs, devised by the administration of President Richard Nixon in 1969 and perpetuated by...

Telegraph

Telegraph   Reference library

David Hochfelder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1844–1897 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994. Gabler, E. The American Telegrapher: A Social History, 1860–1900 . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988. Hochfelder, David . The Telegraph in America: 1832–1920 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012. Israel, P. From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory: Telegraphy and the Changing Context of American Invention, 1830–1920 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. John, Richard R. Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications . Cambridge,...

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, and Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...this particular scientific gap in the United States. Theodore von Kármán, a Hungarian-born engineer and applied scientist and the first director of the Graduate School of Aeronautics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), was among those who campaigned vigorously before the war to make applied mathematics respectable to engineers and mathematicians. In 1941 , Brown University’s R. G. D. Richardson inaugurated the nation’s first program in applied mathematics. Later, New York University’s Richard Courant, who immigrated to the United States in ...

Species Reintroduction

Species Reintroduction   Reference library

Markus GUSSET

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,394 words

...Press. Stanley Price, Mark R. , & Soorae, Pritpal S. (2003). Reintroductions: Whence and whither? International Zoo Yearbook , 38 , 61–75. Van Wieren, Sipke E. (2006). Populations: Re-introductions. In Jelte van Andel & James Aronson (Eds.), Restoration ecology: The new frontier (pp. 82–92). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Wolf, C. Magdalena ; Garland, Theodore, Jr. ; & Griffith, Brad . (1998). Predictors of avian and mammalian translocation success: Reanalysis with phylogenetically independent contrasts. Biological Conservation ,...

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Peoples   Reference library

Dennis S. ERASGA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,239 words

...Varennes, Fernand . (1996). Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft: Revue Internationale de l’Education [Minority aspirations and the revival of indigenous peoples: International review of education]. The Education of Minorities , 42 (4), 309–325. Downing, Theodore ; Moles, Jerry ; McIntosh, Ian ; & Garcia-Downing, Carmen . (2002). Indigenous peoples and mining encounters: Strategies and tactics (MMSD Working Paper No. 57). International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Retrieved August 28, 2011, from ...

Travel and Tourism Industry

Travel and Tourism Industry (The Americas and Oceania: Assessing Sustainability)   Reference library

Evan R. WARD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,168 words

...planned tourism committees, streamlining the process. Other resort developments, such as Punta Cana on the eastern coast of the Dominican Republic, developed under the direction of the Dominican businessman and hotelier Frank Rainieri and the US attorney and labor mediator Theodore Kheel , have used a multipronged approach to sustainable tourism development. On the one hand, price limits the tourists’ footprint (as well as the number of residential developments) on the beaches fronting the Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. The...

Forensic Pathology and Death Investigation

Forensic Pathology and Death Investigation   Reference library

Jeffrey M. Jentzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...observed on the teaching of medical jurisprudence, “There are very few of the medical colleges in which it was taught, and still fewer in which it takes rank as a distinct and independent branch along with the other departments” ( Burns, 1980 , p. 279). A young Boston lawyer, Theodore Tyndale, spearheaded a reform movement critical of both coroners and physicians and called for the appointment of medical examiners who were “able and discrete men of science.” Tyndale argued that the lay coroner controlled the expert testimony of untrained physicians by...

Forest Management Industry

Forest Management Industry   Reference library

Thomas J. STRAKA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,087 words

...Industry Further Reading Convention on Biological Diversity. (2008). The ecosystem approach e-newsletter. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from http://www.cbd.int/ecosystems/newsletters/ea-2008-12.htm Dana, Samuel T. , & Fairfax, Sally K. (1980). Forest and range policy: Its development in the United States (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Davis, Lawrence S. ; Johnson, K. Norman ; Bettinger, Peter S. ; & Howard, Theodore E. (2001). Forest management: To sustain ecological, economic, and social values (4th ed.). New York:...

Marine Ecosystems Health

Marine Ecosystems Health   Reference library

Benjamin H. SHERMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
5,846 words

...resource management. Ecological Applications , 1 , 66–84. Levins, Richard , et al. (1994). The emergence of new diseases. American Scientist , 82 , 52–60. Likens, Gene E. (1992). The ecosystem approach: Its use and abuse. In Otto Kinne (Ed.), Excellence in ecology: Vol. 3 . Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany: Ecology Institute. Lotzehk, Heike K. , et al. (2006). Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science , 312 (5781), 1806–1809. Mack, Richard N. , et al. (2000). Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global...

Airplanes and Air Transport

Airplanes and Air Transport   Reference library

Richard P. Hallion

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in previous times. [ See also Computer Science ; Engineering ; Kármán, Theodore von ; Lindbergh, Charles ; Machinery and Manufacturing ; Meteorology and Climatology ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; Postal Service, U.S. ; Radio ; Research and Development (R&D) ; Satellites, Communications ; Space Program ; Space Science ; Technology ; and Wright, Wilbur and Orville .] Bibliography Bilstein, Roger E. Flight Patterns: Trends of Aeronautical Development in the United States,...

Birth Control and Family Planning

Birth Control and Family Planning   Reference library

Susan Hanket Brandt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...number of allegedly “fit” people and to decrease hereditarily “unfit” populations. Some Americans of northern European descent feared their numbers were diminishing, and African Americans and immigrants from southern and Eastern Europe were apparently increasing. Leaders like Theodore Roosevelt maintained that middle- and upper-class “old stock” Americans were committing “race suicide” by using birth control, whereas the working classes and the unfit were incapable of voluntary contraception. Some eugenicists promoted restrictive immigration laws and...

Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research

Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research   Reference library

J. Rogers Hollingsworth and Ellen Jane Hollingsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...William P. Medicine 1934 Murray, Joseph E. Medicine 1990 Nathans, Daniel Medicine 1978 Negishi, Ei-ichi Chemistry 2010 Nirenberg, Marshall W. Medicine 1968 Northrop, John Chemistry 1946 Ochoa, Severo Medicine 1959 Palade, George Medicine 1974 Pauling, Linus Chemistry 1954 Pedersen, Charles Chemistry 1987 Pople, John A. Chemistry 1998 Prusiner, Stanley Medicine 1997 Ramakrishnan, V. Chemistry 2009 Richards, Dickinson Medicine 1956 Richards, Theodore Chemistry 1914 Robbins, Frederick Medicine 1954 Roberts, Richard Medicine 1993 Rodbell, Martin Medicine 1994...

United States

United States   Reference library

James G. LEWIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,845 words

...Act in 1897 ; together these laws laid the foundation for federal land management. At the same time, government science bureaus (increasingly staffed by graduates of recently formed professional schools) were being established. Decisive action, however, began only during Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency ( 1901–1909 ). His administration made scientific land management for utilitarian purposes (captured in Pinchot’s “the greatest good” phrase) accepted policy. This policy also contributed to a split within the nascent conservation movement when the federal...

Parks and Protected Areas

Parks and Protected Areas   Reference library

Emily WAKILD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,854 words

...historians have seen a dispute between Pinchot’s conservation and the naturalist John Muir ’s ( 1838–1914 ) work arguing for more careful preservation of landscapes, including the redwood forests of California. More recent studies emphasize the role of the US president Theodore Roosevelt ( 1858–1919 ) in putting into place a vast program of conservation that mitigated the differences between conservationists and preservationists ( Brinkley 2009 , 21 ). Various dimensions and mixtures of these rationales for broad conservation appear independently in...

Literature and Science

Literature and Science   Reference library

Priscilla Wald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...studies from Miller’s contemporary Henry Nash Smith’s The Virgin Land ( 1950 ) through Leo Marx’s The Machine in the Garden ( 1964 ) to Richard Slotkin’s Regeneration through Violence ( 1973 ). This essay chronicles paradigm shifts in scientific ideas about nature and the human through attention to literary works that engage them. Early works on the relationship of science and literature, such as Ronald E. Martin’s American Literature and the Universe of Force ( 1983 ) and Lisa Steinman’s Made in America: Science, Technology, and American...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...their own work. Brown, E. Richard . Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Emphasizes the economic self-interest of the Rockefeller Foundation. Carnegie Corporation of New York . http://carnegie.org/ . Includes links to the various other Carnegie charities including the Carnegie Institution for Science and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Carter, Susan B. , Scott Sigmund Gartner , Michael R. Haines , Alan L. Olmstead , Richard Sutch , and Gavin Wright ,...

science in history

science in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...underpinning this analysis (Makhoul 1978 ), the amply revered enterprise of science in Israel appears as it really is: the key to securing the continuous relocation of the “Jew” as exists in the Western states' inherent problems of legitimation. Such key Zionist figures as Theodore Herzl and David Ben-Gurion , whom apologetically critical approaches to the political economy of science in Israel unquestionably cite in support of an idealized notion of a harmonious marriage between Zionism and science, capture perhaps the essence of my basic thesis...

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