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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Telegraph

Telegraph   Reference library

David Hochfelder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1844–1897 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994. Gabler, E. The American Telegrapher: A Social History, 1860–1900 . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988. Hochfelder, David . The Telegraph in America: 1832–1920 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012. Israel, P. From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory: Telegraphy and the Changing Context of American Invention, 1830–1920 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. John, Richard R. Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications . Cambridge,...

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, and Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...this particular scientific gap in the United States. Theodore von Kármán, a Hungarian-born engineer and applied scientist and the first director of the Graduate School of Aeronautics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), was among those who campaigned vigorously before the war to make applied mathematics respectable to engineers and mathematicians. In 1941 , Brown University’s R. G. D. Richardson inaugurated the nation’s first program in applied mathematics. Later, New York University’s Richard Courant, who immigrated to the United States in ...

Forensic Pathology and Death Investigation

Forensic Pathology and Death Investigation   Reference library

Jeffrey M. Jentzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...observed on the teaching of medical jurisprudence, “There are very few of the medical colleges in which it was taught, and still fewer in which it takes rank as a distinct and independent branch along with the other departments” ( Burns, 1980 , p. 279). A young Boston lawyer, Theodore Tyndale, spearheaded a reform movement critical of both coroners and physicians and called for the appointment of medical examiners who were “able and discrete men of science.” Tyndale argued that the lay coroner controlled the expert testimony of untrained physicians by...

Airplanes and Air Transport

Airplanes and Air Transport   Reference library

Richard P. Hallion

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in previous times. [ See also Computer Science ; Engineering ; Kármán, Theodore von ; Lindbergh, Charles ; Machinery and Manufacturing ; Meteorology and Climatology ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; Postal Service, U.S. ; Radio ; Research and Development (R&D) ; Satellites, Communications ; Space Program ; Space Science ; Technology ; and Wright, Wilbur and Orville .] Bibliography Bilstein, Roger E. Flight Patterns: Trends of Aeronautical Development in the United States,...

Birth Control and Family Planning

Birth Control and Family Planning   Reference library

Susan Hanket Brandt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...number of allegedly “fit” people and to decrease hereditarily “unfit” populations. Some Americans of northern European descent feared their numbers were diminishing, and African Americans and immigrants from southern and Eastern Europe were apparently increasing. Leaders like Theodore Roosevelt maintained that middle- and upper-class “old stock” Americans were committing “race suicide” by using birth control, whereas the working classes and the unfit were incapable of voluntary contraception. Some eugenicists promoted restrictive immigration laws and...

Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research

Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research   Reference library

J. Rogers Hollingsworth and Ellen Jane Hollingsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...William P. Medicine 1934 Murray, Joseph E. Medicine 1990 Nathans, Daniel Medicine 1978 Negishi, Ei-ichi Chemistry 2010 Nirenberg, Marshall W. Medicine 1968 Northrop, John Chemistry 1946 Ochoa, Severo Medicine 1959 Palade, George Medicine 1974 Pauling, Linus Chemistry 1954 Pedersen, Charles Chemistry 1987 Pople, John A. Chemistry 1998 Prusiner, Stanley Medicine 1997 Ramakrishnan, V. Chemistry 2009 Richards, Dickinson Medicine 1956 Richards, Theodore Chemistry 1914 Robbins, Frederick Medicine 1954 Roberts, Richard Medicine 1993 Rodbell, Martin Medicine 1994...

Literature and Science

Literature and Science   Reference library

Priscilla Wald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...studies from Miller’s contemporary Henry Nash Smith’s The Virgin Land ( 1950 ) through Leo Marx’s The Machine in the Garden ( 1964 ) to Richard Slotkin’s Regeneration through Violence ( 1973 ). This essay chronicles paradigm shifts in scientific ideas about nature and the human through attention to literary works that engage them. Early works on the relationship of science and literature, such as Ronald E. Martin’s American Literature and the Universe of Force ( 1983 ) and Lisa Steinman’s Made in America: Science, Technology, and American...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...their own work. Brown, E. Richard . Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Emphasizes the economic self-interest of the Rockefeller Foundation. Carnegie Corporation of New York . http://carnegie.org/ . Includes links to the various other Carnegie charities including the Carnegie Institution for Science and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Carter, Susan B. , Scott Sigmund Gartner , Michael R. Haines , Alan L. Olmstead , Richard Sutch , and Gavin Wright ,...

Higher Education and Science

Higher Education and Science   Reference library

Roger L. Geiger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...country, although in intellectual productivity it was far behind world-leading Germany ( Forman et al., 1975 ). American physicists Henry Rowland of Johns Hopkins and Albert Michelson of the University of Chicago had achieved international reputations. In chemistry, Harvard’s Theodore Richards was eminent enough to be offered a professorial chair at Göttingen. At MIT, Arthur Noyes established the Research Laboratory in Physical Chemistry ( 1903 ), half supported with his own funds, which became renowned for its precise measurements of physical properties and...

Engineering

Engineering   Reference library

Ann Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...also well represented in the command structure of both Union and Confederate armies, with Robert E. Lee being the most famous and highest ranking former member of the Corps of Engineers. The Union maintained control of the Corps of Engineers and the Topographical Engineers and, to address wartime needs, combined them. Some engineers resigned their positions in the Corps to join the Confederacy. Joseph Totten commanded the Corps until his death in 1864 , when Richard Delafield took over. The Corps were responsible for the Union’s defenses as well as advising and...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...especially SAGE. Fagerberg, Jan , David C. Mowery , and Richard R. Nelson , eds. The Oxford Handbook of Innovation . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Includes many salient articles on aspects of R&D since 1945. Fisk, Catherine L. Working Knowledge: Employee Innovation and the Rise of Corporate Intellectual Property, 1800–1930 . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. Essential to understanding the legal basis of corporate research. Galambos, Louis . “Theodore N. Vail and the Role of Innovation in the Modern Bell System.” ...

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