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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Naumburg, Declaration of

Naumburg, Declaration of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
431 words

...confessional consensus; see especially pp. 241–242. Richard, James W. The Confessional History of the Lutheran Church . Philadelphia, 1909. Pays close attention to primary sources and includes translations of materials unavailable elsewhere; see especially pp. 290–307. Schmauk, Theodore E. , and C. Theodore Benze . The Confessional Principle and the Confessions of the Lutheran Church . Reprint, Saint Louis, 1981. Draws on some of the best nineteenth-century confessional scholarship. Tappert, Theodore , ed. The Book of Concord . Philadelphia, 1959. See...

Eritrea

Eritrea   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,537 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Chronicle , April 19, 2007. Lobban, Richard A. “Eritrean Liberation Front: A Close Up View.” Munger Africana Library Notes 13.Pasadena, Calif.: California Institute of Technology. 1972. Lobban, Richard A. “ The Eritrean War: Issues and Implications. ” Canadian Journal of African Studies 10(2): 335–346. 1976. Longrigg, Stephen H. A Short History of Eritrea . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945. OʾFahey, R. S. “ Sudanese (and some other) Sources for Eritrean History, A Bibliographical Note. ” Sudanic Africa 12(2001): 131–142. Richard A. Lobban,...

Vermigli, Peter Martyr

Vermigli, Peter Martyr (1499–1562)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,889 words

...to Bishop John Jewel , was full of classical references and gratitude for their friendship since their Oxford days. In September 1561 he attended with Bèze the Colloquy of Poissy. Vermigli corresponded with various Elizabethan bishops, including Jewel at Salisbury, Richard Cox at Ely, and Edwin Sandys at Worcester. He contributed a preface to Jewel's influential Apologia ecclesiae anglicanae ( 1562 ). Vermigli's presence in northern Europe can be documented from his extant correspondence and publications. One such work is his Preces sacrae ex...

Nobility

Nobility   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,137 words

...even crucial, to the success of the new religions. Nobles often provided protection and status to the nascent Protestant churches, and, once converted, they would also increase the size of a congregation by bringing in their retainers, clients, and relatives. John Calvin , Théodore de Bèze , and other magisterials clearly recognized and appreciated the importance of the nobility to the success of the reform movement. Second, there were regional variations in the level and extent of noble commitment to the new religions owing to local political, economic,...

Piety

Piety   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,594 words

...bewailing the sinful corruption therein contained.” It was also considered advantageous, in this first preparatory stage of devotion, to recite set verses such as the Meditationes of Augustine, the Psalter of David, or the new religious verse of such vernacular writers as Théodore de Bèze , Philippe Duplessis-Mornay , and Jean de Sponde. Such techniques again were designed not to give doctrinal instruction but to stimulate controlled individual reflection. Rhymed verse and poetic expression were employed to organize thoughts and stimulate meditation in...

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,402 words

...that led to the first schism (in the strict sense) in the history of Protestantism, the Arminian schism in the Netherlands. But in order for there to have been a schism, there had to be an orthodoxy, and the origins of this orthodoxy have been rightly traced back to Théodore de Bèze ( 1519–1605 ), a colleague and later the successor of Calvin as the head of the church and the academy of Geneva. Bèze distinguished himself by his teaching, often based on the reference work of Reformed Protestantism, Calvin's Institutio religionis Christianae ...

Zwinglianism

Zwinglianism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,815 words

...the Reformed churches throughout Europe. The first challenge came in the late 1550s in the Vaud. Bern had occupied the Vaud in 1536 and immediately pushed through a reform of the entire territory according to the Zwinglian system that prevailed at Bern. Pierre Viret and Théodore de Bèze , professors at the new academy at Lausanne, were Calvinists, as were many pastors in the Vaud. The first and perhaps most dramatic sign of trouble between the Zwinglians and Calvinists in the Vaud came in 1554 when several Zwinglian pastors objected that Calvin's...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...Deryn , Robert E. Goss , Mona West , and Thomas Bohache , eds. The Queer Bible Commentary . London: SMC, 2006. Halperin, David M. “Is There a History of Sexuality?” History and Theory 28, no. 3 (October 1989): 257–274. Hays, Richard B. “Relations Natural and Unnatural: A Response to John Boswell’s Exegesis of Romans 1.” Journal of Religious Ethics 14, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 184–215. Jennings, Theodore W., Jr. The Man Jesus Loved: Homoerotic Narratives from the New Testament . Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim, 2009. Jennings, Theodore W., Jr. , and ...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...also stressed the value of the individual, and the latter the importance of personal intuition. Cady Stanton was friendly with the Boston Unitarians and Transcendentalists, and says that she was particularly imbued with the ideas of Boston abolitionist and minister Theodore Parker ( 1810–1860 ). Like the evangelicals, these groups stressed individual religious experience, thus legitimating women as spiritual beings. The Bible as Egalitarian. The first extended analysis of the Bible from a perspective of women’s rights in America came from the hand...

Books of Martyrs

Books of Martyrs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,640 words

...Ga., 1987. An extensive study of Rabus, with a biographical chapter and one on his martyrology. Macek, Ellen A. The Emergence of a FeminineSpirituality in ‘The Book of Martyrs.’ Sixteenth Century Journal 19 (1988), 63–80. Meylan, Henri . Martyrs du diable. In D'Érasme à Théodore de Bèze: Problèmes de l'Église et de l'école chez les réformés , pp. 259–275. Geneva, 1976. On the intolerance shown toward the martyrs of other confessions. Moreau, Gérard . Contribution à l'histoire du Livre des martyrs . Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire du...

Magistracy

Magistracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
15,074 words

...1970. Kaplan, Benjamin Jacob . “Calvinists and Libertines: The Reformation in Utrecht, 1578–1618.” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1989. Kingdon, Robert M , ed. Théodore de Bèze: Du droit des magistrats . Geneva, 1970. Locher, Gottfried W. Die Zwinglische Reformation im Rahmen der europäischen Kirchengeschichte . Göttingen, 1979. Maruyama, Tadatake . The Ecclesiology of Theodore Beza . Geneva, 1978. Nijenhuis, W. Variants within Dutch Calvinism in the Sixteenth Century . Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 12 (1979), 48–64. Pettegree, Andrew . Emden...

Reformation Studies

Reformation Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
10,576 words

...in academic humanism rather than dogmatic theology, owing much to the classical tradition of Plutarch and in some cases to the traditional pattern of the funeral encomium. Biographies by Beatus Rhenanus on Erasmus, by Melanchthon and Johannes Mathesius on Luther, and by Théodore de Bèze on John Calvin have remained influential over time, but the genre was extensive and included a host of relatively minor figures. Often slight and superficial in factual content, these biographies were nevertheless valuable for their evocation of authentic atmosphere...

Preaching and Sermons

Preaching and Sermons   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
8,961 words

...on Luther's Small Catechism. He was heavily influenced by Melanchthon, whom he acknowledged in the preface to his sermons on the Gospel of Matthew. Important preachers of the Reformed tradition were Johannes Oecolampadius , preacher and reformer of Basel; Ambrosius Blarer ; Théodore de Bèze , who, preaching a Christmas sermon in a field outside Paris in the face of physical threats, was vividly reminded of the fate of Stephen in Acts of the Apostles ; and Martin Bucer , the reformer of Strasbourg. Heinrich Bullinger , Zwingli's successor at Zurich,...

Islamic Studies

Islamic Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
11,026 words

...the publication by E. M. Quatremère of the Muqaddimah (Introduction to History) by Ibn Khaldūn ( d. 1406 ) in 1858 , a work viewed as a foundational text of modern sociological study, and subsequently to its first translation into French by Baron de Slane ( 1925 ). The histories of al-Ṭabarī ( d. 923 ) and al-Masʿūdī ( d. 956 ) and many other Arabic texts were also edited and translated for publication. The predominance of philological and historical approaches, particularly in German circles, is evident in works such as Theodore Nöldeke 's study on...

Church Offices

Church Offices   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
12,362 words

...ecclesiastiques in 1561 indicate that the city council essentially accepted Calvin's position (e.g., noncitizens could be elected elders, and magistrates functioning as elders laid aside the symbol of their civil office). Calvinist insistence on ecclesiastical autonomy for discipline met with theological, as well as political, resistance. The most vigorous opponents of Calvinist ideas were Zwinglians and their followers, especially among the English. Théodore de Bèze , Heinrich Bullinger , the English Admonitioners, and others developed the argument:...

Gender Transgression

Gender Transgression   Reference library

Deryn Guest, Walter D. Penrose Jr., Eric Thurman, Sean D. Burke, Sarra Lev, and Kristi Upson-Saia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,362 words

..., pp. 9–43. Semeia Studies 67. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2011. Hoffner, Harry A., Jr. “Symbols for Masculinity and Femininity: Their Use in Ancient Near Eastern Sympathetic Magic Rituals.” Journal of Biblical Literature 85 (1966): 326–334. Jennings, Theodore W., Jr. “YHWH as Erastes.” In Queer Commentary on the Hebrew Bible , edited by Ken Stone , pp. 36–74. London and New York: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001. Kamionkowski, S. Tamar . Gender Reversal and Cosmic Chaos: A Study in the Book of Ezekiel . London: Sheffield Academic Press...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...Christa , and Theodore Kwasman . “A Unique Talmudic Aramaic Incantation Bowl.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 120, no. 2 (2000): 159–165. Naveh, Joseph , and Shaul Shaked . Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity . Jerusalem: Magnes, 1985; reprint 1998. Naveh, Joseph , and Shaul Shaked . Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity . Jerusalem: Magnes, 1993. Neusner, Jacob . “Phenomenon of the Rabbi in Late Antiquity.” Numen 16, no. 1 (1969): 1–20. Nickelsburg, George W. E. , and James C....

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...Texts and Hermeneutics . Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon, 2001. Halperin, David M. How to Do the History of Homosexuality . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Hays, Richard B. The Moral Vision of the New Testament: Community, Cross, New Creation; A Contemporary Introduction to New Testament Ethics . San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1996. Jennings, Theodore W., Jr. The Man Jesus Loved: Homoerotic Narratives from the New Testament . Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim, 2003. Knust, Jennifer Wright . Abandoned to Lust: Sexual Slander and Ancient C...

Music

Music   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
11,793 words

...truths poured out in his heart on hearing singing in church [ Conf . IX, 6]). The solution, therefore, was to require only good, holy texts, and what better choice than the Psalms , the songs given by the Holy Spirit (albeit in the metrical versions of Clément Marot and Théodore de Bèze )? And for these songs a style had been fashioned, Calvin maintained, uniquely sacred and suited to its lofty purpose in gravity, majesty, moderation, and modesty. Sacred Music in the Century of the Reformation Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin represent the main currents in...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,750 words
Illustration(s):
1

...beyond the restraints of Western culture, but also a conception of the Near East as wild and cruel. Delacroix's viewpoint was communicated to his friends and followers, including Jules-Robert Auguste ( 1789–1850 ; he traveled to the East before Delacroix), Richard Parkes Bonington ( 1802–28 ), Théodore Chassériau ( 1819–56 ) and Adolf Schreyer ( 1828–99 ). The association of the Near East with turbulence and cruelty was ubiquitous, beyond the influence of one artist, and is found in such works of disparate style and date as Revolt at Cairo ( 1810 ;...

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