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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Antidrug Campaigns

Antidrug Campaigns   Reference library

Joyce A. MADANCY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...a triple profit. Even if you do not sell opium, you still have this threefold profit. How can you bear to go further, selling products injurious to others in order to fulfill your insatiable desire? Source : Letter to the English Ruler [1839]. ( 1999 ). In Wm. Theodore de Bary and Richard Lufrano (Comps.), Sources of Chinese Tradition: From 1600 through the Twentieth Century (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press, 1I, 202. ...

Knight, Sarah Kemble

Knight, Sarah Kemble (1666–1727)   Reference library

Laura M. Stevens

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Amy E. Winans (Detroit, MI, 1999), pp. 221–7. Imbarrato, Susan . Traveling Women: Narrative Visions of Early America (Athens, OH, 2006). Michaelsen, Scott . “Narrative and Class in a Culture of Consumption: The Significance of Stories in Sarah Kemble Knight’s Journal,” College Literature 21, no. 2 (1994): 33–46. Stern, Julia . “To Relish and to Spew: Disgust and Cultural Critique in The Journal of Madam Knight ,” Legacy 14, no. 1 (1997): 1–12. Laura M. Stevens University of Tulsa See also: boston, massachusetts ; dwight, theodore ; ...

Literary Criticism

Literary Criticism   Reference library

Gordon Hutner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Theodore ; Eliot, T. S. ; Emerson, Ralph Waldo ; Fuller, Margaret ; Howells, William Dean ; James, Henry ; Journalism ; Language, American ; Literature ; Mencken, H. L. ; Modernism ; Morrison, Toni ; New England ; Parker, Theodore ; Poe, Edgar Allan ; Poetry ; Postmodernism ; and Trilling, Lionel . ] Bibliography Carbon, Evan , and Gerald Graff . “Criticism Since 1940.” In Cambridge History of American Literature , vol. 8, edited by Sacvan Bercovitch , pp. 261–472. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Ruland, Richard . ...

Smith, Elihu Hubbard

Smith, Elihu Hubbard (1771–98)   Reference library

Bryan Waterman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...was a Yale graduate at age fifteen. He then studied further with Timothy Dwight at Greenfield Hill Academy before moving to Philadelphia for medical training under Benjamin Rush. Returning to Connecticut, he collaborated on satirical political poetry with Theodore Dwight, Mason Fitch Cogswell, Richard Alsop, and others who formed a second generation of “Connecticut Wits.” (The original Wits included Timothy Dwight, Joel Barlow, John Trumbull, and Lemuel Hopkins.) Prior to moving to New York City in 1793 , Smith edited American Poems, Selected and...

Présence Africaine

Présence Africaine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,149 words

...noir ( 1934–1940 ), and Tropiques (co-founded by Aimé Césaire and René Ménil), Présence Africaine was born in 1947 on the initiative of Alioune Diop. It had prestigious godparents, such as L. S. Senghor, André Gide, Jean-Paul Sartre, Théodore Monod, Emmanuel Mounier, Albert Camus, Michel Leiris, and Richard Wright, and from the beginning it was situated at the universal level. André Gide wrote in the conclusion to his foreword for the first issue, “ Présence Africaine offers a vast program: to welcome everything bearing on the cause of blacks and...

Body, The

Body, The   Reference library

Sarah F. Rose

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...enforced. Representing Masculinity: Industrialization and the Threat to American Manhood. As the United States underwent intensive industrialization and urbanization in the late nineteenth century, elites began to fear that modern civilization might actually harm men's bodies. Theodore Roosevelt , among others, argued that the disappearance of skilled manual labor, the emergence of white-collar work, urbanization, and the “closing of the frontier” threatened to turn American men into weaklings. Representations of men's bodies, both textual and visual, served...

Censorship

Censorship   Reference library

Francis G. Couvares

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The ACLU–Holmes–Chafee approach insisted that the First Amendment was meant primarily to serve the social good by assuring a hearing for unpopular political views, not to protect individual liberty. This approach gave short shrift to traditional libertarianism, represented by Theodore Schroeder of the National Free Speech League, for example, which insisted on the individual's freedom of expression, political, sexual, or otherwise. In a tactically shrewd move, Progressive Era intellectuals offered their socially based argument for free speech in an era not...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Everett Emerson, Gary Ashwill, Gordon Hutner, Thomas H. Schaub, and Erin A. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...life than did Wright in Native Son. Ellison's Invisible Man ( 1952 ), winner of the National Book Award, is often ranked as the most important novel of the post–World War II era. A new generation of poets that included Elizabeth Bishop, Theodore Roethke, John Berryman, Robert Lowell, James Dickey, Denise Levertov, Richard Wilbur, and Adrienne Rich emerged in the 1940s and 1950s, producing well-made formal poems indebted to Eliot and the New Criticism. But learned formalism soon gave way to looser, more “confessional” poetry in the work of Ginsberg, Anne...

Communications

Communications   Reference library

David M. Henkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...John, Richard R. Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications . Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010. The leading study of the political economy of American telecommunications during the long nineteenth century. John, Richard R. Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998. A history of the early U.S. Post Office as a bureaucratic institution, a subject of controversy, and a connective tissue in national political life. Kielbowicz, Richard . ...

Political Culture

Political Culture   Reference library

Glenn C. Altschuler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...New York: Worth Publishers, 1999. Kramnick, Isaac . Republican and Bourgeois Radicalism: Political Ideology in Late Eighteenth-Century England and America . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990. Lowi, Theodore . The End of Liberalism: Ideology, Policy, and the Crisis of Public Authority . New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1969. McGerr, Michael E. The Decline of Popular Politics: The American North, 1865–1928 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Argues that the transformation from “popular” to “educational” and “advertised” political techniques...

Music

Music   Reference library

Bill C. Malone, Joseph Horowitz, Ronald L. Davis, and Louis Niebur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...critic John Sullivan Dwight ( 1813–1893 ), influentially espoused the moral purity of instrumental music; Beethoven was his godhead. Meanwhile, in New York, the Philharmonic was founded by German Americans in 1842 , the same year as the Vienna Philharmonic. The German-born Theodore Thomas , who joined the New York Philharmonic's violinists in 1854 , later created his own orchestra and began touring with it in 1869 . Preaching that a symphony orchestra “shows the culture of a community,” Thomas took over the New York Philharmonic ( 1877 ), then the new...

Public History

Public History   Reference library

Seth C. Bruggeman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The Public Historian 21, no. 3 (Summer 1999). Crabtree, Charlotte , Ross E. Dunn , and Gary B. Nash . History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. Engelhardt, Tom , and Edward T. Linenthal . History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past . New York: Metropolitan Books, 1996. Glassberg, David . “Public History and the Study of Memory.” The Public Historian 18, no. 2 (Spring 1996): 7–23. Handler, Richard , and Eric Gable . The New History in an Old Museum: Creating the Past at...

Liberalism

Liberalism   Reference library

Anne Kornhauser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Jane Addams, and key Progressive political actors, presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Despite their differences, these reform liberals agreed that the older individualistic Lockean liberalism had little relevance to their society. Amid the powerful new forces of corporate consolidation, urbanization, immigration, and technological change, social scientists and philosophers devised new ideas about human nature that altered the assumptions of older liberal ideals. As the sociologist E. A. Ross made clear, individuals were no longer autonomous...

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, Michael A. Dennis, Marcel Chotkowski LaFollette, and Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...particular scientific gap in the United States. Theodore von Kármán, a Hungarian-born engineer and applied scientist and the first director of the Graduate School of Aeronautics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), was among those who campaigned vigorously before the war to make applied mathematics respectable to engineers and mathematicians. In 1941 , Brown University's R. G. D. Richardson inaugurated the nation's first program in applied mathematics. Later, New York University's Richard Courant , who immigrated to the United States in ...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; Enlightenment ; Existentialism ; Fuller, Margaret ; Great Awakening, First and Second ; Hofstadter, Richard ; Humanities ; James, William ; Kuhn, Thomas ; Literature ; Magazines ; Mather, Increase and Cotton ; Nature and Environmentalism ; New England ; Parker, Theodore ; Peirce, Charles Sanders ; Pragmatism ; Professionalization ; Psychology ; Puritanism ; Quine, W. V. O. ; Rawls, John ; Religion ; Romanticism ; Rorty, Richard ; Royce, Josiah ; Science ; Social Darwinism ; Thoreau, Henry David ; Transcendentalism ; and ...

Legal History and Historiography in Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa

Legal History and Historiography in Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Richard Waller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
13,363 words

...University Press, 2005); Richard Waller, “Bringing Murder to Court: The Death of Theodore Powys,” unpublished paper, 2017; and Charles van Onselen, “Who Killed Meyer Hasenfus? Organized Crime, Policing and Informing on the Witwatersrand, 1902–8,” History Workshop Journal 67 (2009): 1–22. 96. Conviction and acquittal rates are of comparative importance, as, in capital cases, is the proportion of sentences remitted by the executive (the prerogative of mercy delegated to governors). See Hynd, “Killing the Condemned.” Richard Waller 1. Bonny Ibhawoh, ...

Journalism

Journalism   Reference library

Michael S. Schudson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...national middle-class audience in the 1890s brought yet another sign of the reporter's authority: muckraking. Progressive Era practitioners of this new investigative journalism revealed illegal and unsavory practices of capital, labor, and state and local government. It was Theodore Roosevelt who, in a sizzling attack on their negativism, labeled them “muckrakers.” Stimulated in part by muckraking attacks on business and in part by the general rationalization of corporate enterprise, public relations developed in the early twentieth century. Journalists...

Magazines

Magazines   Reference library

Ellen Gruber Garvey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...thorough, standard study of American magazines, with sketches of many individual magazines. Mott died before completing Volume 5, so later material is thin. Ohmann, Richard . Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso, 1996. Crucial study of the work the ten-cent magazines did in addressing the new professional managerial class. Peterson, Theodore . Magazines in the Twentieth Century . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964. This study picks up where Mott left off, as the standard work on magazines up to...

Sports

Sports   Reference library

Richard O. Davies

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...come, President William Rainey Harper of the new University of Chicago hired Amos Alonzo Stagg to create a powerful team as a means of publicizing the institution and gaining the support of powerful Chicago business executives. One of the leading supporters of football was Theodore Roosevelt , whose own life embodied the essence of Muscular Christianity. In his book The Strenuous Life ( 1902 ), he urged parents to encourage vigorous play for their boys to prepare them for when they would be “in the arena”: “In life, as in a football game,” he wrote, “the...

Regions

Regions   Reference library

C. Steiner Michael

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in spatial configurations of American culture by the 1890s. Self-conscious local-color fiction flourished across the country, engaging writers such as Sarah Orne Jewett and Mary Wilkins Freeman in New England, Joel Chandler Harris and Kate Chopin in the South, Hamlin Garland and Theodore Dreiser in the Midwest, and Bret Harte and Frank Norris in the Far West. Responding to the local-color movement and populist protest of the 1890s, writers and critics—among them Garland, William Dean Howells, and Charles Fletcher Lummis—issued regional literary manifestos and...

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