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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

American Literature

American Literature   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,828 words
Illustration(s):
1

...realism with a detailed attention to local color. His narratives are characterized by ironic comic tones. At the turn of the century, realism evolved into naturalism, influenced by the fiction and theoretical writings of the French author Émile Zola . Naturalists such as Theodore Dreiser , Stephen Crane , and Frank Norris focused on harsher aspects of life than the realists had and on their characters' inability to direct their own actions. The Twentieth Century. The literary works of the twentieth century, the century of modernism and postmodernism,...

Progressivism

Progressivism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,052 words

...This led to new state policies, but also to actions by other agencies, such as settlement houses, and new interest in limiting immigration as well. Thinkers and activists such as John Dewey , Jane Addams , Herbert Croly , Walter Lippmann , Charlotte Perkins Gilman , and Richard T. Ely explored the possibility of new relations between the individual, the family, the local community, and the state. To fight social problems, reformers founded private organizations and, most notably, established settlement houses in the expanding slums of American cities....

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform   Reference library

Maureen A. Flanagan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,414 words

...interracial cooperation. 77 W. E. B. Du Bois and Addams helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( 1909 ). African American Progressivism. African Americans believed that Progressive ideology should lead inevitably to racial equality. Du Bois spoke at public forums. 78 He supported the social justice Progressives’ agenda, attending the 1912 Progressive Party convention. Du Bois proposed a racial equality plank for the party platform. Jane Addams helped write the plank. Theodore Roosevelt rejected it, preferring the...

American Colonial Empire

American Colonial Empire   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,093 words

...and the publication of Alfred Thayer Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 —together heralded what the historian Walter LaFeber has dubbed the “New Empire,” led by a cohort of self-conscious new imperialists like Theodore Roosevelt. The key démarche in this period came when Secretary of State Richard Olney intervened in a border dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela in 1895 to assert, in a note to the British government, that the United States was “practically sovereign upon this continent.” From then on, for nearly four...

Serfdom

Serfdom   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,656 words

...Ages until the Early Twentieth Century . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. Duus, Peter . Feudalism in Japan . 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. Hellie, Richard . Enserfment and Military Change in Muscovy . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971. Link, Edith M. The Emancipation of the Austrian Peasant, 1740–1798 . New York: Columbia University Press, 1949. Theodore R....

Espionage and Intelligence Agencies

Espionage and Intelligence Agencies   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,435 words
Illustration(s):
1

...penetrated the U.S. embassy in Moscow, probably through the U.S. military attaché Colonel Philip R. Faymonville; the United States government; and the top-secret Manhattan Project through the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg spy ring, Donald Maclean, and the scientists Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall. World War II and the Cold War. In the field of SIGINT, between World War I and World War II the United States broke enemy codes, deciphering both the German and the Japanese encryption systems. Almost in the same period, cryptanalysts of the Polish Cipher Bureau (Biuro...

Realism

Realism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,134 words

... said to H. G. Wells in 1915 , “It is art that makes life, makes interest, makes importance.” The realists’ craft was thus essential to knowledge. Almost from its inception, literary realism was subject to revision. Naturalists like Émile Zola ( 1840–1902 ) in France and Theodore Dreiser ( 1871–1945 ) in the United States thought that prose realism was not scientific enough and contended for a more systematic objectivity in literature. Leopold von Ranke ( 1795–1886 ) in Germany had already argued the same for the writing of professional history, which...

Philippines Expedition

Philippines Expedition   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,186 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Shaw, Angel Velasco , and Luis H. Francia , eds. Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899–1999 . New York: New York University Press, 2002. A collection of essays that considers the war's impact on the Philippines. Welch, Richard E., Jr. Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine-American War, 1899–1902 . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. Chronicles the responses of various sectors of the U.S. public to the war. Joseph...

The Central Business District in American Cities

The Central Business District in American Cities   Reference library

Emily Remus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,691 words

...Store (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015), 9–29 . 13. Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1900), 17. 14. See especially Leach, “Part I: Strategies of Enticement,” in Land of Desire , 15–152. 15. Benson, Counter Cultures , 76. 16. Emily A. Remus, “Tippling Ladies and the Making of Consumer Culture: Gender and Public Space in Fin-de-Siècle Chicago,” Journal of American History (December 2014): 757–761. 17. Richard Butsch, The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750–1990 ...

Politics in Urban America before 1940

Politics in Urban America before 1940   Reference library

James J. Connolly

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,474 words

...an electoral triumph, but in the strong showing of Henry George as the candidate of the Workingmen’s Party in New York City in late 1886 . The land reformer received sixty-eight thousand votes, which placed him second to Democrat Abraham Hewitt and ahead of Republican nominee Theodore Roosevelt. 17 George’s impressive result and successes elsewhere did not herald the arrival of a workingman’s republic, but it did position organized labor as a powerful interest within urban civic life. Politicians such as Hewitt and Chicago’s Carter Harrison moved quickly to meet...

Environmental Pollution and the American City

Environmental Pollution and the American City   Reference library

Brian McCammack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
12,020 words

... . US Environmental Protection Agency Publications . Further Reading Andrews, Richard, N. L. Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves , 2nd ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006. Bullard, Robert . Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. Colten, Craig E. “Cities and Water Pollution: An Historical and Geographic Perspective.” Urban Geography 26, no. 5 (2005): 435–458. Colten, Craig E. An Unnatural Metropolis: Wresting New Orleans from Nature . Baton Rouge: Louisiana State...

United States Vagrancy Laws

United States Vagrancy Laws   Reference library

Risa L. Goluboff and Adam Sorensen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,646 words

...Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct (New York: Hoeber-Harper, 1961). On officials’ response, see, e.g., Richard Lamb, ed., The Homeless Mentally Ill: A Task Force Report of the American Psychiatric Association (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1984); Andrew T. Scull, Decarceration: Community Treatment and the Deviant: A Radical View (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977). On new techniques of control, see, e.g., Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert, Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Oxford: Oxford...

Rock and Roll

Rock and Roll   Reference library

Eric Weisbard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
14,580 words

...Joseph Schloss collecting beats, Daniel Cavicchi worshipping with Springsteen fans) belatedly explored rock and pop’s working languages, with John Covach, Alan Moore, Susan Fast, and Albin Zak theorizing rock alongside philosopher Theodore Gracyk. 55 Academics like Will Straw, Barry Shank, Sara Cohen, Keith Kahn-Harris, Richard Lloyd, and Holly Kruse examined rock scenes differently than journalists had Beatlemania or grunge, as evolving urban cultural formations. 56 Recent critical takes on rock and roll have turned toward confronting taste. Inspired by a Kelefa...

Service Economies and the American Postindustrial City, 1950–present

Service Economies and the American Postindustrial City, 1950–present   Reference library

Patrick Vitale

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,864 words

...Gentrification and the Search for Authenticity in Postwar New York (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). 35. Kim Phillips-Fein, Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2017). 36. Neil Brenner and Nik Theodore, “Cities and the Geographies of ‘Actually Existing Neoliberalism,’” Antipode 34, no. 3 (2002): 349–379; and Jason Hackworth, The Neoliberal City: Governance, Ideology, and Development in American Urbanism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007). 37. Jamie Peck and...

Climate Change and the American City

Climate Change and the American City   Reference library

Andrew Hurley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,328 words

...Disaster . New York: Metropolitan Books, 1998. Knowles, Scott Gabriel . The Disaster Experts: Mastering Risk in Modern America . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. Kohn, Edward P. Hot Time in the Old Town: The Great Heat Wave of 1896 and the Making of Theodore Roosevelt . New York: Basic Books, 2010. McKelvey, Blake . Snow in the Cities: A History of America’s Urban Response . Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 1995. Mergen, Bernard . Snow in America . Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. Mergen, Bernard...

Company Towns in the United States

Company Towns in the United States   Reference library

Hardy Green

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,456 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Cotton Mill World . New York: W.W. Norton, 1987. Hareven, Tamara K. , and Randolph Langenbach . Amoskeag: Life and Work in an American Factory City . New York: Pantheon, 1978. Kulik, Gary , Roger Parks , and Theodore Z. Penn , eds. The New England Mill Village, 1790–1860 . Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press, 1982. Mosher, Anne E. Capital’s Utopia: Vandergrift, Pennsylvania 1855–1916 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. Mozingo, Louise A. Pastoral Capitalism: A History of Suburban Corporate Landscapes . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press...

Public Sector Unions in the United States

Public Sector Unions in the United States   Reference library

Joseph E. Hower

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,631 words

...to political agitation in the postal service. As early as 1895 , Postmaster General William Wilson issued an order that bared employees of the US Post Office from traveling to the nation’s capital “for the purposes of influencing legislation before Congress.” 4 President Theodore Roosevelt extended the restriction in 1902 , instituting a “gag rule” that prohibited any federal employee from individually or collectively lobbying for legislation. 5 Taken to its logical conclusion, this outlook cast public employment as fundamentally different from private...

Liberalism

Liberalism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
12,170 words

...U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1984–1995. Rodríguez O., Jaime E. The Independence of Spanish America . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998. This reinterpretation emphasizes liberalism's impact during the independence period. Safford, Frank . “Politics, Ideology, and Society in Post-Independence Spanish America.” In The Cambridge History of Latin America , edited by Leslie Bethell , vol. 3, pp. 347–421. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1984–1995. Weiner, Richard . Race, Nation, and Market: Economic Culture in Porfirian Mexico ....

Mississippian Ancient Towns and Cities, 1000–1700

Mississippian Ancient Towns and Cities, 1000–1700   Reference library

Robbie Ethridge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...James F. Garber, eds., Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms , and George E. Lankford, F. Kent Reilly III, and James F. Garber, eds., Visualizing the Sacred . 52 In 2004 , the Art Institute of Chicago published a catalog for their magnificent exhibit of Southeastern Indian art, much of which was from the Mississippi Period. The catalog presents beautiful, oversized photographs of the art as well as informed essays by the leaders in Southeastern Indian iconography studies. The book is Richard F. Townsend and Robert V. Sharp, eds., Hero, Hawk, and the Open Hand...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,048 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Economy . New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Katz, Richard . Japanese Phoenix: The Long Road to Economic Revival . Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2003. Morikawa, Hidemasa . Zaibatsu: The Rise and Fall of Family Enterprise Groups in Japan . Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1992. Mosk, Carl . Competition and Cooperation in Japanese Labour Markets . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Mosk, Carl . Japanese Industrial History: Technology, Urbanization, and Economic Growth . Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2001. Nakamura, Takafusa . The Postwar Japanese...

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