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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Naumburg, Declaration of

Naumburg, Declaration of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
431 words

...confessional consensus; see especially pp. 241–242. Richard, James W. The Confessional History of the Lutheran Church . Philadelphia, 1909. Pays close attention to primary sources and includes translations of materials unavailable elsewhere; see especially pp. 290–307. Schmauk, Theodore E. , and C. Theodore Benze . The Confessional Principle and the Confessions of the Lutheran Church . Reprint, Saint Louis, 1981. Draws on some of the best nineteenth-century confessional scholarship. Tappert, Theodore , ed. The Book of Concord . Philadelphia, 1959. See...

Knight, Sarah Kemble

Knight, Sarah Kemble (1666–1727)   Reference library

Laura M. Stevens

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Amy E. Winans (Detroit, MI, 1999), pp. 221–7. Imbarrato, Susan . Traveling Women: Narrative Visions of Early America (Athens, OH, 2006). Michaelsen, Scott . “Narrative and Class in a Culture of Consumption: The Significance of Stories in Sarah Kemble Knight’s Journal,” College Literature 21, no. 2 (1994): 33–46. Stern, Julia . “To Relish and to Spew: Disgust and Cultural Critique in The Journal of Madam Knight ,” Legacy 14, no. 1 (1997): 1–12. Laura M. Stevens University of Tulsa See also: boston, massachusetts ; dwight, theodore ; ...

Smith, Elihu Hubbard

Smith, Elihu Hubbard (1771–98)   Reference library

Bryan Waterman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...was a Yale graduate at age fifteen. He then studied further with Timothy Dwight at Greenfield Hill Academy before moving to Philadelphia for medical training under Benjamin Rush. Returning to Connecticut, he collaborated on satirical political poetry with Theodore Dwight, Mason Fitch Cogswell, Richard Alsop, and others who formed a second generation of “Connecticut Wits.” (The original Wits included Timothy Dwight, Joel Barlow, John Trumbull, and Lemuel Hopkins.) Prior to moving to New York City in 1793 , Smith edited American Poems, Selected and...

Vermigli, Peter Martyr

Vermigli, Peter Martyr (1499–1562)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,889 words

...to Bishop John Jewel , was full of classical references and gratitude for their friendship since their Oxford days. In September 1561 he attended with Bèze the Colloquy of Poissy. Vermigli corresponded with various Elizabethan bishops, including Jewel at Salisbury, Richard Cox at Ely, and Edwin Sandys at Worcester. He contributed a preface to Jewel's influential Apologia ecclesiae anglicanae ( 1562 ). Vermigli's presence in northern Europe can be documented from his extant correspondence and publications. One such work is his Preces sacrae ex...

Nobility

Nobility   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,137 words

...even crucial, to the success of the new religions. Nobles often provided protection and status to the nascent Protestant churches, and, once converted, they would also increase the size of a congregation by bringing in their retainers, clients, and relatives. John Calvin , Théodore de Bèze , and other magisterials clearly recognized and appreciated the importance of the nobility to the success of the reform movement. Second, there were regional variations in the level and extent of noble commitment to the new religions owing to local political, economic,...

Piety

Piety   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,594 words

...bewailing the sinful corruption therein contained.” It was also considered advantageous, in this first preparatory stage of devotion, to recite set verses such as the Meditationes of Augustine, the Psalter of David, or the new religious verse of such vernacular writers as Théodore de Bèze , Philippe Duplessis-Mornay , and Jean de Sponde. Such techniques again were designed not to give doctrinal instruction but to stimulate controlled individual reflection. Rhymed verse and poetic expression were employed to organize thoughts and stimulate meditation in...

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,402 words

...that led to the first schism (in the strict sense) in the history of Protestantism, the Arminian schism in the Netherlands. But in order for there to have been a schism, there had to be an orthodoxy, and the origins of this orthodoxy have been rightly traced back to Théodore de Bèze ( 1519–1605 ), a colleague and later the successor of Calvin as the head of the church and the academy of Geneva. Bèze distinguished himself by his teaching, often based on the reference work of Reformed Protestantism, Calvin's Institutio religionis Christianae ...

Zwinglianism

Zwinglianism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,815 words

...the Reformed churches throughout Europe. The first challenge came in the late 1550s in the Vaud. Bern had occupied the Vaud in 1536 and immediately pushed through a reform of the entire territory according to the Zwinglian system that prevailed at Bern. Pierre Viret and Théodore de Bèze , professors at the new academy at Lausanne, were Calvinists, as were many pastors in the Vaud. The first and perhaps most dramatic sign of trouble between the Zwinglians and Calvinists in the Vaud came in 1554 when several Zwinglian pastors objected that Calvin's...

Books of Martyrs

Books of Martyrs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,640 words

...Ga., 1987. An extensive study of Rabus, with a biographical chapter and one on his martyrology. Macek, Ellen A. The Emergence of a FeminineSpirituality in ‘The Book of Martyrs.’ Sixteenth Century Journal 19 (1988), 63–80. Meylan, Henri . Martyrs du diable. In D'Érasme à Théodore de Bèze: Problèmes de l'Église et de l'école chez les réformés , pp. 259–275. Geneva, 1976. On the intolerance shown toward the martyrs of other confessions. Moreau, Gérard . Contribution à l'histoire du Livre des martyrs . Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire du...

Magistracy

Magistracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
15,074 words

...1970. Kaplan, Benjamin Jacob . “Calvinists and Libertines: The Reformation in Utrecht, 1578–1618.” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1989. Kingdon, Robert M , ed. Théodore de Bèze: Du droit des magistrats . Geneva, 1970. Locher, Gottfried W. Die Zwinglische Reformation im Rahmen der europäischen Kirchengeschichte . Göttingen, 1979. Maruyama, Tadatake . The Ecclesiology of Theodore Beza . Geneva, 1978. Nijenhuis, W. Variants within Dutch Calvinism in the Sixteenth Century . Acta Historiae Neerlandicae 12 (1979), 48–64. Pettegree, Andrew . Emden...

Reformation Studies

Reformation Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
10,576 words

...in academic humanism rather than dogmatic theology, owing much to the classical tradition of Plutarch and in some cases to the traditional pattern of the funeral encomium. Biographies by Beatus Rhenanus on Erasmus, by Melanchthon and Johannes Mathesius on Luther, and by Théodore de Bèze on John Calvin have remained influential over time, but the genre was extensive and included a host of relatively minor figures. Often slight and superficial in factual content, these biographies were nevertheless valuable for their evocation of authentic atmosphere...

Preaching and Sermons

Preaching and Sermons   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
8,961 words

...on Luther's Small Catechism. He was heavily influenced by Melanchthon, whom he acknowledged in the preface to his sermons on the Gospel of Matthew. Important preachers of the Reformed tradition were Johannes Oecolampadius , preacher and reformer of Basel; Ambrosius Blarer ; Théodore de Bèze , who, preaching a Christmas sermon in a field outside Paris in the face of physical threats, was vividly reminded of the fate of Stephen in Acts of the Apostles ; and Martin Bucer , the reformer of Strasbourg. Heinrich Bullinger , Zwingli's successor at Zurich,...

Church Offices

Church Offices   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
12,362 words

...ecclesiastiques in 1561 indicate that the city council essentially accepted Calvin's position (e.g., noncitizens could be elected elders, and magistrates functioning as elders laid aside the symbol of their civil office). Calvinist insistence on ecclesiastical autonomy for discipline met with theological, as well as political, resistance. The most vigorous opponents of Calvinist ideas were Zwinglians and their followers, especially among the English. Théodore de Bèze , Heinrich Bullinger , the English Admonitioners, and others developed the argument:...

Music

Music   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
11,793 words

...truths poured out in his heart on hearing singing in church [ Conf . IX, 6]). The solution, therefore, was to require only good, holy texts, and what better choice than the Psalms , the songs given by the Holy Spirit (albeit in the metrical versions of Clément Marot and Théodore de Bèze )? And for these songs a style had been fashioned, Calvin maintained, uniquely sacred and suited to its lofty purpose in gravity, majesty, moderation, and modesty. Sacred Music in the Century of the Reformation Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin represent the main currents in...

Meteorology

Meteorology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,157 words

...and the numerous British and continental forecasting “manuals” that used the folk tradition of “weather signs.” [See also Astronomy ; Commerce and Trade ; and Natural Philosophy and Science .] Feldman, Theodore S. Late Enlightenment Meteorology. In The Quantifying Spirit in the 18th Century , edited by Tore Frangsmyr , John L. Heilbron , and Robin E. Rider , pp. 143–178. Berkeley, 1990. Goodison, Nicholas . English Barometers, 1680–1800: A History of Domestic Barometers and Their Makers and Retailers . London, 1969. An extensive and well illustrated...

Ireland

Ireland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,454 words

...on the dissemination of the writings of the philosophes in Ireland. Gillespie, Raymond . The Ulster of Arthur Dobbs. In Curious about Everything: The Career of Arthur Dobbs of Carrickfergus, 1689–1765 , edited by D. Helen Rankin and E. Charles Nelson , pp. 1–5. Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland, 1990. Hoppen, K. Theodore . The Common Scientist in the Seventeenth Century: A Study of the Dublin Philosophical Society, 1683–1708 . London, 1970. The definitive work on the subject. Kelly, James . The Emergence of Scientific and Institutional Medical Practice in...

Stewart, Dugald

Stewart, Dugald (1753–1828)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,047 words

...and Moral Philosophy: From Grotius to the Scottish Enlightenment , Cambridge, 1996. Madden, E. H. Stewart's Enrichment of the Common Sense Tradition . History of Philosophy Quarterly 3.1 (1987), 45–63. Phillipson, Nicholas . The Pursuit of Virtue in the Scottish University Education: Dugald Stewart and Scottish Moral Philosophy in the Enlightenment. In Universities, Society, and the Future , edited by Nicholas Phillipson , pp. 82–101. Edinburgh, 1983. Sher, Richard . Professor of Virtue: The Social History of the Edinburgh Moral Philosophy Chair in the...

Optimism, Philosophical

Optimism, Philosophical   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,025 words

...and Prose , edited by Mona Wilson , pp. 351–374. Cambridge, Mass., 1965. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm . Philosophical Texts . Edited by R. S. Woolhouse , translated by Richard Francks and R. S. Woolhouse . Oxford, 1998. The best modern English collection, carefully translated and balanced in its annotation. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm . Theodicy . Edited by Austin Farrer , translated by E. M. Huggard . New Haven, Conn., 1952. The work by which Leibniz was best known in the eighteenth century. Pope, Alexander . An Essay on Man . Edited by Maynard Mack ....

Deism

Deism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,718 words

...Lord Herbert of Cherbury and the Seventeenth Century . Manchester, U.K., 1979. Berman, David . A History of Atheism in Britain from Hobbes to Russell . London, 1990. Regards many deists as atheists in disguise, but otherwise an excellent guide to English atheism. Besterman, Theodore . Voltaire . Chicago, 1975. Champion, J. A. I. The Pillars of Priestcraft Shaken: The Church of England and Its Enemies, 1660–1730 . Cambridge, 1992. Especially good on the anticlericalism of the deists. Crocker, Lester G. Diderot the Embattled Philosopher . New York,...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
11,662 words
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...Enlightenment: Useful Knowledge and Polite Culture . Cambridge, 1994. Hudson, Derek , and K. W. Luckhurst . The Royal Society of Arts. 1754–1954 . London 1954. Supplemented by Allan (1980, 1982) and Royal Society of Arts. A Chronological History . London, 1999. Hoppen, K. Theodore . The Royal Society and Ireland . Notes and Records of the Royal Society 20 (1965), 78–99. Hutchinson, S. C. The History of the Royal Academy 1768–1986 . 2d ed. London, 1986. Myers Robin , and Michael Harris , eds. Antiquaries, Book Collections and the Circles of...

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