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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

...worst of the kitsch which was widely produced to satisfy the Nazi cultural system. Literature of other kinds was published only in translation and then in order to demonstrate that in the world outside ‘negative’ Jewish influences were perverting art: thus the American pessimist Theodore Dreiser was much recommended and Somerset Maugham was widely read. These involuntary cultural links between Germany and the outside world were severed in 1943 when the pressures of war reduced all literature to propaganda of one type or another. The Nazis regarded the cinema...

Hoover, Herbert

Hoover, Herbert (1874–1964)   Reference library

Gary Dean Best

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Institution Press, 1983. Clements, Kendrick A. The Life of Herbert Hoover: Imperfect Visionary 1918–1928 . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Leuchtenburg, William E. Herbert Hoover . New York: Times Books, 2009. Nash, Gary H. , ed. Freedom Betrayed: Herbert Hoover's Secret History of the Second World War and Its Aftermath . Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2011. Smith, Richard Norton . An Uncommon Man: The Triumph of Herbert Hoover . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984. Gary Dean...

Taft, William Howard

Taft, William Howard (1857–1930)   Reference library

Lewis L. Gould

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; Justice, Military ; McKinley, William ; Monroe Doctrine ; Panama Canal ; Panama, U.S. Military Intervention in ; Pan-American Union ; Philippine War (1899–1902) ; Roosevelt, Theodore ; Trade and Tariffs and U.S. Diplomacy and War ; United States Foreign Relations ; Wilson, Woodrow ; and World War I (1914–1918) .] Bibliography Arnold, Peri E. Remaking the Presidency: Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, 1901–1916 . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009. Gobat, Michel . Confronting the American Dream: Nicaragua under U.S. Imperial...

The Philippine War

The Philippine War (1899–1902)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...that made this conflict unique. [See also Jungle Warfare ; Philippines, U.S. Military Involvement in the .] James A. LeRoy , The Americans in the Philippines , 2 vols., 1914. John M. Gates , Schoolbooks and Krags: The United States Army in the Philippines, 1898–1902 , 1973. Richard E. Welch , Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine‐American War, 1899–1902 , 1979. Brian M. Linn , The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899–1902 , 1989. Glenn A. May , Battle for Batangas: A Philippine Province at War , 1991. Brian...

Anti-imperialism

Anti-imperialism   Reference library

Christopher McKnight Nichols

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...have the capacity for citizenship, whereas others argued that these inhabitants were capable and worthy of immediate independence and self-rule. Some anti-imperialists—such as William James and E. L. Godkin —argued against the pro-commerce expansionist positions advanced as matters of national security by such Republican politicians as Henry Cabot Lodge , Theodore Roosevelt , and William McKinley , whereas others— Andrew Carnegie and Edward Atkinson , for example—argued that territorial acquisitions were not required to enhance national export markets or...

Music, War and the Military in

Music, War and the Military in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... A Lincoln Address ( 1973 ). Very few works emerged from the Spanish‐American War , although some popular songs such as Charles K. Harris 's Just Break the News to Mother , Good‐bye, Dolly Gray , and Joe Hayden and Theodore Mertz 's popular There’ll be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight —which became the official song of Theodore Roosevelt 's Rough Riders—were well established. It was finally during the Spanish‐American War that piano battle pieces reached their demise after having dominated American war music during the nineteenth century. In their...

Academies, Service

Academies, Service   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...also African Americans in the Military ; Education, Military ; Leadership, Concepts of Military ; Women in the Military. ] Stephen E. Ambrose , Duty, Honor, Country: A History of West Point , 1966. Dave Richard Palmer , The River and the Rock , 1969. John P. Lovell , Neither Athens Nor Sparta? The American Service Academies in Transition , 1979. James L. Morrison, Jr. , The Best School in the World , 1986. Theodore J. Crackel , The Illustrated History of West Point , 1991. George S. Pappas , To The Point: The United States Military Academy,...

Congress and Foreign Policy and Military Affairs

Congress and Foreign Policy and Military Affairs   Reference library

Charles A. Stevenson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...—including annexation of the Dominican Republic and annexation of Hawai‘i, as well as every major treaty with Britain. (Irish Americans became an influential force in U.S. politics and Anglo-American relations.) These defeats prompted twentieth-century presidents, starting with Theodore Roosevelt , to resort increasingly to executive agreements that did not require congressional action, much less the daunting two-thirds vote of the Senate. William McKinley was a hands-on commander in chief during the 1898 war with Spain, but Congress pushed him into the...

Obama, Barack

Obama, Barack (1961)   Reference library

Robert S. Singh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

....] Bibliography Indyk, Martin S. , Kenneth G. Lieberthal , and Michael E. O’Hanlon . Bending History: Barack Obama's Foreign Policy . Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2012. Krauthammer, Charles . “Decline Is a Choice: The New Liberalism and the End of American Ascendancy.” Weekly Standard , 19 October 2009. Lizza, Ryan . “ The Consequentialist: How the Arab Spring Remade Obama's Foreign Policy .” New Yorker , 2 May 2011, pp. 44–55. Lowenthal, Abraham F. , Theodore J. Piccone , and Laurence Whitehead , eds. Shifting the Balance: Obama and...

Antidrug Campaigns

Antidrug Campaigns   Reference library

Joyce A. MADANCY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...a triple profit. Even if you do not sell opium, you still have this threefold profit. How can you bear to go further, selling products injurious to others in order to fulfill your insatiable desire? Source : Letter to the English Ruler [1839]. ( 1999 ). In Wm. Theodore de Bary and Richard Lufrano (Comps.), Sources of Chinese Tradition: From 1600 through the Twentieth Century (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press, 1I, 202. ...

Pacific campaign

Pacific campaign (1941–5)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,211 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the main apparent victor in the Pacific campaign. Richard Overy / Hugh Bicheno Dower, J. , War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York, 1986). Iriye, A. , The Origins of the Second World War in the Pacific (London, 1987). Rhodes, R. , The Making of the Atomic Bomb (London, 1986). Thorne, C. , The Far Eastern War: States and Societies, 1941–1945 (London, 1986). Vat, D. van der , The Pacific Campaign: The US–Japanese Naval War, 1941–1945 (London, 1992). Werrell, K. E. , Blankets of Fire: US Bombers over Japan during WW II ...

political economy and war

political economy and war   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...clearest illustrations of the tight link between war and statism. The four great centralizers in her history were Abraham Lincoln , Woodrow Wilson , Franklin D. Roosevelt , and Lyndon Johnson , not coincidentally associated with the four greatest wars the nation has fought. Theodore Roosevelt was of a similar persuasion, but all he could manage was the imperial adventure in the Philippines ( see Philippines insurrection ), so we cannot know what he might have done given the chance. There is no chance here of confusing cause and effect—all were firmly...

Gilded Age and Progressive Era, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Gilded Age and Progressive Era, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Lloyd E. Ambrosius

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., USS, Sinking of ; Manifest Destiny ; McKinley, William ; Missionary Movements ; Monroe Doctrine ; Moore, John Bassett ; Neutrality ; Olney, Richard ; “Open Door” Policy ; Panama Canal ; Peace Movements ; Peace Progressives ; Permanent Court of International Justice ; Pershing, John J. ; Philippine War (1899–1902); Preparedness Controversy ; Race and Foreign Relations ; Roosevelt, Theodore ; Root, Elihu ; Spanish–American War (1898) ; Taft, William Howard ; Territories, Legal and Foreign Policy and Status of ; Trade and Tariffs and...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
31,203 words
Illustration(s):
6

...II , then of Richard I , began his far more detailed Deeds of Henry II ; he took this up to 1192 before revising and expanding it into a new work, the Chronica , which he continued to 1201 . A principal source for the continental wars of Henry and Richard, as well as for Richard’s crusade (in which the author participated until August 1191 ), Hoveden inserted much valuable record material, such as lists of prisoners taken in the “great war” of 1173–1174 and royal newsletters concerning key campaigns or engagements, such as Richard’s victory at...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...that the range of the ships be limited, so that no taint of imperialism attached to them. War with Spain in 1898 seemed to confirm the importance of a modern fleet, however, and thereafter naval building increased steadily, thanks in part to the strong support of President Theodore Roosevelt . U.S. naval expenditures, which amounted to 7 percent of total federal spending in 1890 , consumed 21 percent in 1905 . By the eve of World War I, the U.S. fleet was third in the world. It had been intended that it be second, behind only Great Britain. In the...

Expansionism

Expansionism   Reference library

Norman A. Graebner and Christopher McKnight Nichols

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Nugent, Walter . Habits of Empire: A History of American Expansion . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008. Stephanson, Anders . Manifest Destiny: American Expansion and the Empire of Right . New York: Hill and Wang, 1996. Welch, Richard E. Imperialists and Anti-Imperialists: The Debate over Expansionism in the 1890s . Itasca, Ill.: F. E. Peacock, 1972. Norman A. Graebner ; updated and revised by Christopher McKnight...

Medical Practice in the Military

Medical Practice in the Military   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...ships. The next year, medical officers were given commissioned rank. Later, medical officers were given command authority over the hospital ships and crews, a controversial decision that was ultimately resolved in favor of the nautical surgeons by the commander in chief, Theodore Roosevelt . In 1908 , the army created the Medical Reserve Corps, an augmentation organization that was separate from the National Guard. A veterinary corps was added to the medical department. Not only were veterinarians highly useful in promoting the health and utility of...

Race and Foreign Relations

Race and Foreign Relations   Reference library

Michael L. Krenn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the sense of Anglo-Saxon superiority among the early American settlers and the notion of a racial mission that translated into a series of racial conflicts with Native Americans and Mexico in the early nineteenth century. Other scholars, such as G. E. Thomas , Roy Harvey Pierce , Philip Borden , and Richard Drinnon , more closely examined how race played into early American and then U.S. relations with Native Americans. The consensus among these studies was that white racism played a significant role in motivating both attacks on the natives and the...

United States Foreign Relations

United States Foreign Relations   Reference library

Ryan Irwin, Mark Beeson, David Mickler, Alan McPherson, Britta H. Crandall, Russell Crandall, Yufan Hao, Fraser Cameron, Andrew J. Rotter, Ali Ansari, Rory Miller, and David Foglesong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...decades been slowly taking the place of England and Spain. U.S. jingoes such as Theodore Roosevelt were itching for a fight to prove their manhood. And Cubans had done most of the fighting to expel the remnants of a dying empire. Cuba was the low-hanging fruit of the Caribbean, and once it fell, Puerto Rico lay right next to it. The Height of Hegemony.  What followed in the next generation was the height of U.S. hegemony in the Caribbean. In 1895 , Secretary of State Richard Olney , during a British–Venezuelan dispute in the southern Caribbean, had already...

Revolutionary War (1775–83)

Revolutionary War (1775–83)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Americans: The Loyalists in the American Revolution , 1969. Richard H. Kohn , Eagle and Sword , 1975. Paul H. Smith , ed., Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789 , 25 vols., 1976–98. Jack N. Rakove , The Beginnings of National Politics , 1979. David P. Szatmary , Shays' Rebellion , 1980. Jonathan R. Dull , A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution , 1985. Robert A. Gross , ed., In Debt to Shays , 1993. Colin G. Calloway , The American Revolution in Indian Country , 1995. Stephen E. Patterson Revolutionary War (1775–83): Changing...

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