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Pervez Musharraf

(1943– ) Pakistani general and statesman; President (2001–8). Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India (1947). Joining the army ...

Kashmir

Kashmir  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A disputed territory between India and Pakistan. In 1941, 77 percent of the population was Muslim. Three major political forces dominated: the National Conference, which wanted to join India; the ...
St Patrick's High School, Karachi

St Patrick's High School, Karachi   Reference library

Dominic D'silva

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Wallis Mathias and Antao D'Souza , Danish Kaneria , and hockey players Jack Britto , O.B. Nazareth began their careers in this school. Among the host of illustrious alumni of St Patrick's High School are Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto , former Chief Minister of Junagadh State, Pervez Musharraf , L.K. Advani , His Eminence Cardinal Valerian Gracias, and many others. dominic...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Rizwan Hussain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,294 words

...army under the leadership of General Pervez Musharraf carried out its third bloodless coup in the country's then-fifty-two-year history by arresting the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, and declaring a state of emergency. General Musharraf portrayed his regime as reformist and determined to deal with the political and economic problems faced by Pakistan. Musharraf promoted a moderate form of Islam. He enunciated the concept of “enlightened moderation,” which emphasized Islam as a moderate religion. The Musharraf regime supported the Taliban in Afghanistan...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,879 words
Illustration(s):
3

...multifaceted social, political, and economic problems faced by Pakistan. The Musharraf Era. On October 12, 1999, the Pakistan army under the leadership of General Pervez Musharraf carried out its third bloodless coup in the country's then fifty-two-year history by arresting the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, and declaring a state of emergency. General Musharraf portrayed his regime as reformist and determined to deal with the political and economic problems faced by Pakistan. Musharraf, an admirer of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , the founder of the secular Turkish...

Women's Action Forum

Women's Action Forum   Reference library

Anita M. Weiss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,173 words

...particularly in the realm of family planning; and countering suppression and raising public awareness by taking stands and issuing statements on events as they occurred. The government of Pervez Musharraf (1999–2008) was more responsive to WAF's recommendations. Although most WAF members criticized the government because it was a military regime, Musharraf's government nevertheless reinstated reserved seats for women in 2001 in provincial and national elections (a key demand of WAF), moved forward with a variety of microcredit schemes for women and,...

All-India Muslim League

All-India Muslim League   Reference library

David Taylor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,168 words

...Sharif formed the core of the successful Islāmī Jumhūrī Ittiḥād (Islamic Democratic Alliance), which ruled until 1993. Subsequently, Nawaz Sharif and the PML–N led another coalition government from 1997 to 1999 and it was overthrown in a military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf. Musharraf himself chose another fraction of the League, the PML–Q, as a political front. In the May 2013 elections, Nawaz Sharif returned to power for a third time at the head of the PML–N. [ See also India ; Jinnah, Mohammad Ali ; Khilāfat Movement ; and Pakistan . ] Bibliography...

Women's Action Forum

Women's Action Forum   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,434 words

...women's political representation in the parliament; to work to raise women's consciousness, particularly in the realm of family planning; and to counter suppression and raise public awareness by taking stands and issuing statements on events as they occur. The government of Pervez Musharraf , who came to power in Pakistan following a coup in October 1999 , has been more responsive to WAF's recommendations than has any other government in its history. Although most WAF members criticize the government solely because it is a military regime, it is that...

Jamāʿat-i Islāmī

Jamāʿat-i Islāmī   Reference library

Kamran Bokhari and Muhammad Atif Khan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,168 words

...of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, and thus made unprecedented electoral gains, winning sixty seats in the National Assembly and also forming provincial governments in two Pakistani provinces bordering Afghanistan. However in a dramatic move, the MMA in 2003 supported Pervez Musharraf, a staunch American ally, in his bid to gain a vote of confidence from parliament and on the proposed seventeenth amendment. This step eventually worsened the image of Jamāʿat and MMA. In 2007 , Jamāʿat along with other major opposition parties announced it would boycott...

Jamʿīyatul ʿUlamāʾ-i Pākistān

Jamʿīyatul ʿUlamāʾ-i Pākistān   Reference library

Kamran Bokhari and Rizwan Hussain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,345 words

...The Jamʿīyat opposed the U.S.-led intervention in Afghanistan in October 2001 and condemned the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in March 2003 . Within Pakistan the Jamʿīyat factions remained opposed to the pro-U.S. policies of the military-dominated regime of General Pervez Musharraf. It was a key player in the creation of the Muttahida Majlis-i Amal (MMA, United Action Forum), a coalition of six Islamic political parties, and Nūrānī was elected the coalition's chief and president. The MMA succeeded in winning the 2003 provincial election in the...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Iram Nisa Asif

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,741 words

...of philanthropy, politics, governance, religion, law, activism, human rights, education, sports, literature, music, arts, fashion, and, most popularly, in the media. Since 1999 , the year in which the army chief Pervez Musharraf ( r. 1999–2008 ) seized power via a nonviolent coup, the media landscape in Pakistan has seen a dramatic change. Musharraf opened up the airways to a free and independent media when he issued countless TV licenses his predecessors had vehemently blocked. GEO broadcast was among the first TV channels. It moved its headquarters from...

Jamʿīyatul ʿUlamāʿ-i Pākistān

Jamʿīyatul ʿUlamāʿ-i Pākistān   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,982 words

...the U.S.-led intervention in Afghanistan to topple the Taliban in October 2001 and condemned the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in March 2003 . Within Pakistan the Jamʿīyat factions remain opposed to the pro-U.S. policies of the military-dominated regime of General Pervez Musharraf. See also Barelwīs ; Deobandīs ; Jamāʿat-i Islāmī ; Jamʿīyatul ʿUlamāʿ-i Islām ; Pakistan ; and Qādirīyah . Bibliography Abbott, Freeland . Islam and Pakistan . Ithaca, N.Y., 1968. Useful summary of interactions between various Islamic groups in Pakistan. Ahmad,...

Taliban

Taliban   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,011 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Pakistan Army's XI Corps based in Peshawar, as well as command-and-control support. Hundreds of Pakistani military officers provided logistical, planning, and intelligence support to the Taliban. After 9/11, intense U.S. pressure was brought to bear on Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf , who publicly distanced himself from the Taliban. The Taliban lost its Pakistani financial, material, military, and intelligence support and were now seemingly abandoned. Resurgence of the Taliban. Since the defeat of the Taliban by the United States and its local allies in...

Jamāʿat-i Islāmī

Jamāʿat-i Islāmī   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,981 words

...government there and won enough seats in the legislature in Baluchistan province as well to form a coalition government with the ruling Pakistan Muslim League. Another reason for its unprecedented performance in the 2002 elections was the move by the government of General Pervez Musharraf to engage in electoral and constitutional engineering in order to contain the country 's two main political parties from gaining too many seats while facilitating the electoral rise of the MMA. The Jamāʿat and the JUI-F are the main driving forces behind the MMA, with the...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,108 words
Illustration(s):
1

...initiated which involved resolving all outstanding issues including Kashmir. In 2005 , for the first time since 1947 , the de facto border (the Line of Control) was opened, permitting a limited bus service to operate for the inhabitants of the state. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf also offered an alternative to the plebiscite, even announcing that Pakistan would renounce its claim on Kashmir provided India would agree to a four-point plan giving the region autonomy or self-governance. However, there has been no change in the status of Jammu and...

Taliban

Taliban   Reference library

Emran Qureshi and Michael Semple

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,344 words

...became even more controversial in the post- 2001 period when the Taliban's ability to access “safe havens” in Pakistan was one of the key factors enabling them to mount such a successful insurgency in Afghanistan. From 2001 the United States put pressure on General Pervez Musharraf and subsequent Pakistani leaders to end support of the Taliban, but, throughout the NATO presence in Afghanistan, the Taliban leadership operated from inside Pakistan. The Pakistani Taliban Movement. In 2007 several militant groups that had emerged in Pakistan along its frontier...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

John Trumpbour

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,255 words

...with the terrorists” (“World-Wide,” Wall Street Journal , 21 September 2001 , p. A1) In testimony before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States on 23 March 2004 , U.S. secretary of state Colin Powell also referred to his demand to Pakistan's Pervez Musharraf to get behind “this crusade” (“Public Testimony Before 9/11 Panel,” New York Times online, 23 March 2004 , p. 23 at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23CND-PTEX.html?pagewanted=23 ). Though firmly repudiated by bin Laden loyalists as a reprobate enemy of true...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
12,269 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Hudud Ordinances, reinstate reserved seats for women in the provincial and national assemblies, or develop other substantive measures to transform Pakistani society in ways that could ensure women's rights in popular practices. Social Reform Efforts Today. The government of Pervez Musharraf , which came to power in Pakistan following a coup in October 1999 , incorporated women's empowerment as a substantive component of its policies to promote Pakistan's progress and alleviate poverty: it reinstated reserved seats for women in the 2001 elections, encouraged...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

Mervat Hatem, Heba Raouf Ezzat, Shahla Haeri, Valentine M. Moghadam, Susan Schaefer Davis, Leila Hessini, Stephanie Willman Bordat, Anita M. Weiss, Sharon Siddique, and Farjana Mahbuba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
15,123 words

...attempted to reverse the Hudood Ordinances, reinstate reserved seats for women in the provincial and national assemblies, or develop other substantive measures to transform Pakistani society in ways that could ensure women's rights in popular practices. The government of Pervez Musharraf, which came to power in Pakistan following a coup in October 1999, incorporated women's empowerment as a substantive component of its policies to promote Pakistan's progress and alleviate poverty; it reinstated reserved seats for women in the 2001 elections, encouraged a...

Secularism

Secularism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,035 words

...West proudly and loudly proclaims itself as secular and is simultaneously viewed by Muslims as pursuing policies that are unpopular have further undermined the reputation of secularism. Overt Western support for dictatorial regimes such as those of Hosni Mubarak in Egypt, Pervez Musharraf in Pakistan and Mahmoud Abbas in Palestine are illustrations of this point. Similarly, Western support for the Algerian military coup which aborted the democratic process in 1992 and the strong support for Israel at the expense of the Palestinians contribute indirectly...

Strategic Violence Among Religious Parties in Pakistan

Strategic Violence Among Religious Parties in Pakistan   Reference library

Niloufer Siddiqui

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,204 words

...party that was formed initially as the Sipah-e-Sahaba (“The Army of the Companions of the Prophet”) in 1985 . The group operated first as a political party, achieving some success in elections in Punjab, but was involved in militant attacks as well. It was banned by Gen. Pervez Musharraf in 2001–2002 but quickly re-formed under its new name. The ASWJ, together with its militant offshoot that formed in 1996 , the Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, is viewed as responsible for much of the sectarian violence occurring in Pakistan today ( Peer, 2013 ). The ASWJ contested...

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