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Pervez Musharraf

(1943– ) Pakistani general and statesman; President (2001–8). Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India (1947). Joining the army ...

Musharraf, Pervez

Musharraf, Pervez (1943–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
189 words

..., Pervez ( 1943–  ) Pakistani general and statesman; President ( 2001–08 ) . Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India ( 1947 ). Joining the army in 1964 , he rose to become army chief of staff in 1998 . In 1999 he ousted the Prime Minister, Narwaz Sharif, in a bloodless coup following a dispute over policy towards Kashmir. Promising a return to democracy, he ruled as Chief Executive until 2001 , when he declared himself President. A referendum in 2002 confirmed him in this office and the...

Musharraf, Pervez

Musharraf, Pervez (11 Aug. 1943)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
477 words

...Musharraf, Pervez (b. Delhi, India , 11 Aug. 1943 ) Leader of Pakistan 1999–2008 Born in Delhi, he was educated at Forman Christian College, Lahore, before joining the Pakistan Military Academy in 1961 . He visited the Royal College of Defence Studies in England, and in 1964 was commissioned to an artillery regiment as an officer. He rose through the army's ranks, and in 1993 became Director of the General Military Operations. He became a general in 1998 and became Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1999 . Musharraf overthrew the...

Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf  

(1943– )Pakistani general and statesman; President (2001–8). Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India (1947). Joining the army in 1964, he rose to ...
Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
848 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to similar tests by India. The military overthrew Sharif’s government in 1999 and placed him under house arrest: General Pervez Musharraf became Chief Executive, and then President in 2001 . His rule was endorsed by a referendum in 2002 . Musharraf suspended the constitution in 2007 but called for elections in 2008 ; Benazir Bhutto was assassinated while campaigning. After a delayed election, which his supporters lost, Musharraf was forced from office. In October 2008 , he was replaced as president by Asif Ali Zardari, Benazir Bhutto’s widower and...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,675 words

...advocates would not agree with this interpretation or conclusion. Instead, adherents of the most politicized Islamist views contend that women should remain entirely within the home, completely removed from any interactions with unrelated men. In 2006 the government of Pervez Musharraf promised to modify the Hudood laws but not withdraw them. The fate of those laws is as contentious as the visions of women's rights held by different groups in Pakistan today. One thing is decidedly clear: how the state of Pakistan frames its goal of modernity and how it...

Indo-Pakistan Conflict

Indo-Pakistan Conflict   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of underground shelters. Tensions between India and Pakistan remained high, and a full-scale war seemed a distinct possibility following the attack by six terrorists on the Indian parliament in New Delhi on 13 December 2001 . India blamed Pakistan. The Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf immediately condemned the attack. Nonetheless, the Indian army went on high alert all along the Pakistani border, and the Pakistani army responded in a similar manner. India recalled its High Commissioner to Islamabad on 21 December and cut travel links between India and...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,685 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The prime minister blamed the army chief Pervez Musharraf ( b. 1943 ) for the war—the war that Benzir Bhutto called “Pakistan's greatest blunder,” a sentiment that many Pakistani officials agreed with. The war was a military and a strategic defeat that saw universal condemnation of Pakistan and praise for India for refusing to escalate the conflict by crossing the line of control. It also led to a sharp increase in military spending in India, to the further detriment of Pakistan's competitive stance. Musharraf's Coup. The Pakistani army was acutely...

Muslim League

Muslim League   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,300 words

...has been a feuding house of feudal lords at best, and the “kings' party”—a party loyal to the prevailing autocrat— at worst. All four army generals who ruled Pakistan— Muhammad Ayub Khan ( 1958–1969 ), Yahya Khan ( 1969–1971 ), Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq ( 1977–1988 ), and Pervez Musharraf ( 1998–  )—used the Muslim League in the name of Islam, Pakistan, and/or Jinnah to perpetuate military, bureaucratic, and feudal power in Pakistan. [ See also British Raj ; India ; Islam ; and Pakistan . ] Bibliography Ikram, S. M. Modern Muslim India and the Birth...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,527 words

...killed, along with seven Indians; nearly twenty people were hospitalized. The attack bore similarities to a raid on the Kashmir state assembly on 1 October 2001 when thirty-eight people were killed. India blamed Pakistan for this latest attack. The Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf immediately condemned the attack, as did the All Parties Hurriyat Conference, an umbrella group of two dozen groups in Kashmir demanding self-determination for Kashmir. Nonetheless, the Indian army went on high alert all along the Pakistani border, and the Pakistani army...

Pakistan, Secular Laws in

Pakistan, Secular Laws in   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,162 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with the Objectives Resolution as the Preamble. Although both Constitutions declared Pakistan to be an Islamic Republic, neither catered to an Islamic way of government in the conventional sense. Legal Opposition. More than 100 lawyers demonstrating against President General Pervez Musharraf in the city court district of Islamabad, November 2007. Photograph by Wally Santana. AP Images Through Article 2 of the 1973 Constitution, Islam had been declared the State Religion. Provisions relating to Islam were made fundamental under Part IX of the Constitution....

Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Weapons   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,906 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of mass destruction as justification for the invasion of Iraq, Qaddafi abandoned and revealed his secret program in December 2003 . Subsequently Iran was found to have built centrifuge plants modeled on Kahn's. These revelations forced the Pakistani president General Pervez Musharraf to remove Kahn from his post and later to place him under house arrest; Kahn was not, however, made available for international investigators, so the extent of his proliferation activities has not been definitively established. Nevertheless, nuclear-capable F-16 fighter...

Constitutional Law

Constitutional Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
20,460 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Khan ( 1958–1969 ), Yahya Khan ( 1969–1971 ), Zia ul-Haq ( 1977–1988 ), and Pervez Musharraf ( 1999–2008 ). Many of the variations between the constitutions of 1956 , 1962 , and 1973 (still in force) and their many amendments had to do with the federal structure of the country and with the respective powers of the president (whose primacy is affirmed in the 1962 constitution and reaffirmed by the Eighth Amendment of Zia ul-haq in 1985 and again recently by Musharraf) and, on the other side, of the prime minister and the parliament (whose role was...

Foreign Relations

Foreign Relations   Reference library

Emily S. Rosenberg, Dennis Merrill, Emily S. Rosenberg, Lawrence S. Kaplan, Paul S. Boyer, T. Christopher Jespersen, Paul S. Boyer, Nancy Mitchell, Bruce Kuniholm, Paul S. Boyer, J.L. Granatstein, and Mark T. Gilderhus

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
13,087 words

...Iraq War of 2003 and the Bush administration's larger objective of spreading democracy throughout the region. The U.S. intervention in Iraq, and the subsequent turmoil, they warned, would increase rather than diminish the terrorist threat. While Pakistan's military ruler Pervez Musharraf backed the U.S. action in Iraq, he faced opposition and even assassination attempts from Islamic militants in his own country. U.S. relations with Saudi Arabia were strained by the fact that Osama bin Laden , the leader of Al Qaeda, the terrorist organization responsible...

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)   Reference library

Michael J. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...maneuvered upward to Ac’capruk, located on the Balkh River, the attack against Mazar-i-Sharif ensued. Amazingly, according to the Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Steve Coll , the fall of Mazar was briefly delayed by the Bush administration so that Pakistan's president Pervez Musharraf could evacuate from Mazar intelligence officials from Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence ( ISI ) who were there working with the Taliban against U.S. and Northern Alliance forces. The Bush administration either missed or deliberately chose not to recognize how...

21st century

21st century: 2000 - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Phelps wins 8 gold medals, beating Mark Spitz's record of 7 in the 1972 games Spitz, Mark Andrew (1950– ) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 Sports and games Asia China Society 2008 2008 Nine years after seizing power in a coup, Pervez Musharraf resigns as president of Pakistan under threat of impeachment Musharraf, Pervez (1943– ) A Dictionary of World History 2 Asia Pakistan 2008 2008 With troops now stationed in the breakaway Georgian provinces of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Russia unilaterally recognizes both as independent republics Ossetia World...

1990s

1990s: 1990 - 1999  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...syndrome A Dictionary of Education 1 20th century Netherlands 1999 1999 The UN commits 6000 troops to a peace-keeping role in war-torn Sierra Leone Sierra Leone World Encyclopedia 1 20th century War Africa West Africa 1999 1999 A Pakistani general, Pervez Musharraf, takes power in a military coup Musharraf, Pervez (b. 11 Aug. 1943) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 20th century Politics Asia South Asia India (the subcontinent) Pakistan 1999 1999 The UN sends in KFOR (Kosovo Force) to supervise post-war recovery in Kosovo Kosovo A Dictionary of...

20th century

20th century: 1900 - 1999  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Big Brother syndrome A Dictionary of Education 1 1990s Netherlands 1999 1999 The UN commits 6000 troops to a peace-keeping role in war-torn Sierra Leone Sierra Leone World Encyclopedia 1 1990s War Africa West Africa 1999 1999 A Pakistani general, Pervez Musharraf, takes power in a military coup Musharraf, Pervez (b. 11 Aug. 1943) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1990s Politics Asia South Asia India (the subcontinent) Pakistan 1999 1999 The UN sends in KFOR (Kosovo Force) to supervise post-war recovery in Kosovo Kosovo A Dictionary of Contemporary...

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