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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

quatrefoil

quatrefoil  

An ornamental design of four lobes or leaves as used in architectural tracery, resembling a flower or clover leaf.
flint

flint  

Variety of chert, which occurs commonly as nodules and bands in chalk. It is deposited in the porous, permeable structures of sponge, diatom, and echinoid skeletons and also in burrows.
glass

glass  

[Ma]An artificial material produced by fusing silica sand with an alkali such as potash or sodium. It was probably developed from faience in the Near East during the 3rd millennium bc, but was not ...
Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

Karen B. Stern

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(Horbury and Noy, 1992 , no. 14, p. 21). In Leontopolis (Tell-el-Yehudieh) the local necropolis contained tombs marked with menorahs and biblical names. Steps facilitated access to subterranean passageways leading to a square central chamber where loculus tombs were cut perpendicularly into the rock. Bricks were placed under the heads of many of the dead. Inscribed stelae crowned with pediments were also discovered inside the complex. Several local inscriptions, as well as those from Demerdash, included metrical elegiac poems conventional throughout the...

Capernaum

Capernaum   Reference library

Stefano De Luca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...possesses good acoustic characteristics and could be the scene of Jesus’s preaching from the boat ( Mark 3:9 ). Farther to the northeast, Y. Stepansky has documented remains of an unusual dry stone structure, with a length of about 1,968.5 ft (600 m), from which extend, perpendicular to the coast, 44 irregular arms, 9.8 ft (3 m) distant from one another. These are interpretable as anchorages or, more likely, as the vivaria (fishponds or fish-traps) mentioned in the rabbinical literature under the name bibarim ( m. Beṣah 3:1). In the Byzantine and...

Beersheba

Beersheba   Reference library

Gunnar Lehmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,352 words

...chambers and repeatedly reconstructed. The general course of the streets did not change essentially through all four strata and are dominated by an inner and an outer peripheral alley parallel to the fortification wall and along the elevation lines. Radial streets running perpendicular to the peripheral alleys connected the inner part of the settlement with the outer one. There may have been free access to the city wall, considered by A. Faust a basic element of city planning in Judah and Israel during the Iron Age. There are indications of thorough planning...

Gezer

Gezer   Reference library

Steven M. Ortiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,050 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the hills and coast. During the Iron Age the typical house at Gezer was rectangular and consisted of four rooms. A central room with tabuns (ovens) was flanked by two parallel rooms on either side. These three rows of rooms were separated by pillars. There was a back room perpendicular to these three rows of rooms. This broad backroom functioned as a storage room. Such a house would have had a second story. To the northwest there is an eighth-century b.c.e. domestic quarter with several typical Iron-Age four-room houses built next to each other and a...

Death and Burial, Hellenistic and Roman Period, Palestine

Death and Burial, Hellenistic and Roman Period, Palestine   Reference library

Byron R. McCane

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,199 words
Illustration(s):
2

... arcosolia ), a wide, shallow, arch-shaped niche carved along the wall of the burial chamber, in which a body could be laid parallel to the wall, and (2) the loculus (pl. loculi ), a long, narrow slot carved deep into the wall of the tomb, in which a body could be laid perpendicular to the wall of the tomb. These niches, which are widely distributed around the Mediterranean world during the Hellenistic period, make their first appearance in Palestine during the Hellenistic period at Maresha, in the “painted tombs” discovered by Peters and Thiersch. They...

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period   Reference library

Gabriel Mazor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

...served the city council as a bouleuterion (council meeting hall). At the southern side of the city a hippodrome was built at the second century c.e. , measuring 886 ft (270 m) in length and 230 ft (70 m) in width (Pl. 1:24). The seats were erected over ramps set within perpendicular walls and substructure vaults. During the fourth century it was partly dismantled, while its western part was turned into an amphitheater, 394 ft (120 m) long and 220 ft (67 m) wide. The tiers were supported by vaults, and the arena had a 10 ft (3 m) high wall adorned by a...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The settlement on the summit spread to the adjacent plateau on the east at some point in the Early Roman period, in the late first or early second century c.e. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to the main thoroughfares created a spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae , of buildings. The cardo (44.9 ft [13.7 m] wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original pavers, probably dating to the first half of the second...

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