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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Atlantic, battle of the

Atlantic, battle of the   Reference library

Marc Milner

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,598 words
Illustration(s):
3

...routes converged, targets and good firing positions were difficult for individual submariners to obtain. Dönitz developed a system to solve both the search and the attack problems on the high seas. The search problem was resolved by establishing patrol lines of U-boats perpendicular to the convoy route, controlled by a shore-based plot through high-frequency radio communications . Acting like a huge drift net and manoeuvred on the basis of intelligence, these ‘wolf-packs’ covered a wide area of open ocean. Once in contact with a convoy, shadowers from...

crossing the T

crossing the T   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...the T a maneuver in naval tactics in which, with both opposing fleets in column, one fleet succeeds in passing in front of the enemy column and perpendicular to it. In the age of sail and naval gunnery, “crossing the T” gave a decided advantage to the fleet achieving that maneuver in that it was thus able to bring to bear all its guns on the side toward the enemy whereas the enemy ships, being in column, could bring to bear few of their guns, the majority being masked by the friendly ships sailing before them in the...

Nancy, Battle of

Nancy, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...fight. His army, however, decimated by cold and desertion, by then was probably no larger than two thousand men. Despite this disadvantage, on the morning of 5 January he left his camp, headed southeast, and arrayed his troops in formation along the Jarville stream, which ran perpendicular to the road leading from Nancy to Saint-Nicolas-de-Port. Blocking a narrow passage, the Burgundian line was composed of three corps: the left flank, against the Meurthe; the main division in the center, commanded by the Duke of Burgundy himself; and the right flank, against...

order, tactical

order, tactical   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...or the other preferred to recall an appointment elsewhere. As a unit attacking in line was highly vulnerable to cavalry attack and difficult to move across country, a ‘column’ would be used to cover intermediate ground. The column consisted of a unit deployed in deep lines perpendicular rather than parallel to the enemy's front. This way, a battalion of 700 men would face the enemy with a front of only about 27 yards (25 metres), but would have a depth of about 164 yards (150 metres). This formation was, however, more vulnerable to artillery and unless...

Horsemanship

Horsemanship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...horse to spring from the hindquarters with a thrust of energy known as impulsion. This energy then flows along the back muscles and rounds or arches the neck to result in flexion at the poll, the point just behind the horse’s ears, with the front of the horse’s face roughly perpendicular to the ground as in the horses of the Bayeux Tapestry. Collection enables the horse to perform correct lead changes and 180-degree turns. At a canter, the foreleg that extends ahead of the other is called the leading leg. In order to canter on the right lead, the horse will...

beam

beam  

N.1 the direction of an object visible from the port or starboard side of a ship when it is perpendicular to the center line of the vessel: there was land in sight on the port beam.[...]
jackstaff

jackstaff  

A short pole mast erected perpendicularly on the stem of a modern ship, or at the end of the bowsprit in the days of sail. It is where the national flag of a nation is hoisted in naval ships when at ...
rake

rake 2   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...2 v. 1 (of a ship's mast or funnel) incline from the perpendicular toward the stern. 2 (of a ship's bow or stern) project at its upper part beyond the...

pitch

pitch   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...n. a swaying or oscillation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of motion. v. 1 (of a moving ship, aircraft, or vehicle) rock or oscillate around a lateral axis, so that the front and back move up and down : the little steamer pressed on, pitching gently. 2 (of a vehicle) move with a vigorous jogging motion : a jeep came pitching down the hill. pitch in join in a fight or dispute. pitch into forcefully...

beam

beam   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...n. 1 the direction of an object visible from the port or starboard side of a ship when it is perpendicular to the center line of the vessel : there was land in sight on the port beam . 2 a ship's breadth at its widest point : a cutter with a beam of 16 feet. 3 the shank of an anchor. 4 a series of radio or radar signals emitted to serve as a navigational guide for ships or aircraft. v. 1 transmit (a radio signal or broadcast) in a specified direction: beaming a distress signal into space. on her or its beam-ends (of a ship) heeled over on its...

Anzac Legend

Anzac Legend   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...hardly have been better designed to appeal to an Australian audience. It was a thrilling description, full of stirring phrases which told Australians that their men had performed just as they expected: ‘Not waiting for orders, … they sprang into the sea’; ‘facing an almost perpendicular cliff … those colonials, practical above all else, went about it in a practical way’; ‘this race of athletes proceeded to scale the cliffs without responding to the enemy's fire’. Afterwards, the wounded Australians ‘were happy because they knew that they had been tried for...

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