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Overview

Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

frost creep

frost creep   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...creep The net downslope displacement that occurs when a soil, during a freeze–thaw cycle, expands perpendicular to the ground surface and settles in a nearly vertical direction. http://www.uspermafrost.org/glossary.php The US Permafrost Association...

irradiance

irradiance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The rate of flow of radiant energy through unit area perpendicular to a solar beam. Total solar irradiance is the dominant driver of global climate ( Mendoza (2005) Advances Space Res. 35, 5 ). See also Mishchenko et al. (2007) Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 88, 5...

friction coefficient

friction coefficient   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...coefficient The ratio of the force that maintains contact between an object and a surface and the frictional force that resists the motion of the object; the ratio of two forces acting, respectively, perpendicular and parallel to an interface, between two bodies under relative motion ( Blau (2001) Tribology Int. 34, 9 ). Under the same friction coefficient different normal stresses cause different friction levels ( Kame and Yamashita (2003) Geophys. J. Int. 155, 3 ). In a rockfall, the friction coefficient is the strongest factor in determining...

longshore drift

longshore drift   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...drift The movement of sand and shingle along the coast. Waves usually surge onto a beach at an oblique angle and their swash takes sediment up and along the beach. The backwash usually drains back down the beach at an angle more nearly perpendicular to the coast, taking sediment with it. Thus there is a zigzag movement of sediment along the coast. Longshore currents , initiated by waves, also move beach material along the coast. The term littoral drift is...

Coriolis force

Coriolis force   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...It shows up, for example, in the movement of an air stream, relative to the rotating Earth beneath it. The Coriolis force is proportional to the wind speed U ( z ), and the Coriolis parameter , —where Φ ‎ is the latitude and Ω ‎ is the Earth’s rate of rotation—acts perpendicular to the wind direction ( Orr et al. (2005) Weather 60, 10...

Thiessen polygon

Thiessen polygon   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...polygon A subdivision of a drainage basin, containing a rain gauge. Polygons are constructed by first siting the rain gauges, plotting them on a base map, and connecting the sites by straight lines. The lines are bisected with perpendiculars, which meet to form the polygons. The areas of the polygons are calculated and expressed as fractions of the total area. Each fraction is multiplied by the precipitation recorded by its rain gauge. The sum of these calculations represents total precipitation over the catchment area. For an account, see Yoo et al....

tropics

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The Tropic of Cancer lies approximately along latitude 23° 30′ N. Around 21–2 June, the sun’s rays are perpendicular to the ground along this line and the sun exerts its maximum strength in the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, the sun is overhead at the approximate latitude of 23° 30′ S, the Tropic of Capricorn , on 22–3 December when the sun’s heat is at its maximum in the Southern Hemisphere. Between these two lines of latitude lie the tropics. In America this zone is known as the neotropics and in Africa and South-East Asia as the palaeotropics...

shear

shear   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...exceed soil shear strength ( Simoni et al. (2008) Hydrol. Procs 22, 4 ). Shear stress happens when the applied force acts tangentially to the surface of the body (the down-slope component). It is opposed to a normal stress (the slope-normal component) which is applied perpendicularly. See Namikas (2000) J. Sed. Res. 72, 2 on measuring bed shear stress during aeolian saltation; Sime et al. (2007) Water Resources Res. 43 , W03418 on estimating river bed shear. Within a glacier, the level of shear stress ( τ ‎) experienced at any point is dependent...

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