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Overview

Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Water Resources

Water Resources   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,876 words

...in the early years of the Mughal Empire in India ( 1526–1858 ) with the development of highly refined pools, fountains, wells, and baths as the “skeletal and circulatory systems” of the elaborate Mughal gardens ( Wescoat , 1989 ). The classic hydraulic pattern was a set of perpendicular channels dividing the garden into quadrants, shallow marble basins within an open pavilion at the center. Cascades of water rolled over carved surfaces of marble and sandstone. These dynamic features were combined with elaborate plantings and paintings to symbolize order and...

Power Technology

Power Technology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,830 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to capture the wind was inefficient. Ancient merchant vessels usually depended on a single square mainsail. This type of rigging generally limited ancient mariners to sailing with the wind. Fore-and-aft rigs (where the sail ran parallel to the length of the boat instead of perpendicular), which permitted vessels to sail more directly into the wind, appeared in the Indian Ocean centuries before the current era and expanded into the Mediterranean by the first century bce. However, they were more inconvenient to handle on large vessels and without deep keels (to...

Water Transportation

Water Transportation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
17,247 words
Illustration(s):
4

...eighteenth century, originally carried both square and fore-and-aft sails on its two masts. Reduced to just fore-and-aft sails, schooners could add masts, getting to as many as seven in the last days of sail. Other two-masted ships or even large single-masted ships with perpendicular sides, a single deck, and easily workable rig, such as the smack , the Dutch tjalk , and the kof , supplanted larger types of older design in intra-European trades in the north. Two-masters proved especially useful for coastal or regional trade, which enjoyed rapid growth...

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