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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

horizontal cell

horizontal cell n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...cell n . A type of cell in the retina that lacks an axon , lying perpendicular to the sensory pathway and linking photoreceptors and bipolar cells , one of its important functions being to inhibit neurons outside the immediate zone of excitation. Compare amacrine cell...

Lissajous figure

Lissajous figure n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...figure n. A curve traced out by a point moving in simple harmonic motion in two directions perpendicular to each other, the shape of the curve being determined by the relative frequencies and phases of the motion. If the motion is observed for some time on an oscilloscope screen, the direction of apparent rotation appears to reverse spontaneously. [Named after the French physicist Jules Antoine Lissajous ( 1822–80 ) who first constructed...

kinetic depth effect

kinetic depth effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the object is held obliquely and rotated about its centre, causing complex transformations that make the shadow appear to move in front and behind the surface on which it is cast. The three-dimensional effect disappears if the rod stops moving, or if it rotates in a plane perpendicular to the surface on which the shadow is cast, causing the shadow merely to lengthen and shorten as the rod rotates. It is closely related to the windmill illusion . See also structure from motion . KDE abbrev...

ocular-dominance column

ocular-dominance column n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...column n . Any of the alternating slabs of cells perpendicular to the surface of the primary visual cortex (Area V1), approximately half a millimetre wide and extending through all six cortical layers, appearing after special staining procedures as orderly stripes, with all the cells in a slab responding mainly to inputs from the same eye, and in layer 4C, which receives inputs directly from the lateral geniculate nuclei, responding only to inputs from the dominant eye for that particular slab. The anatomical basis of this alternation is...

hair cell

hair cell n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...into electrical nerve impulses. A mammalian hair cell responds along its axis of maximum sensitivity to movements of its tip of 100 picometres (trillionths of a metre, about the same distance as the diameter of some atoms), but is totally insensitive to movement along the perpendicular axis. See also Deiters’ cell , inner hair cell , outer hair cell...

Pulfrich effect

Pulfrich effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...effect n . A visual illusion that is seen when a pendulum such as a length of string with a weight attached to one end is swung from side to side in a plane perpendicular to the line of vision. If it is viewed from a distance with a lens from a pair of sunglasses or a similar dark filter over one eye but with both eyes open, and with attention focused on the centre of the swing, the pendulum appears to move in an ellipse parallel to the floor, clockwise as seen from above if the dark lens is over the left eye and anticlockwise if it is covers the right...

waggle dance

waggle dance n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Psychiatry
Length:
263 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to perform another straight waggling run from the same point, then looping back for a further straight waggling run, and so on, alternating the return loops between left anticlockwise) and right (clockwise) (see illustration). The direction of the waggling run relative to the perpendicular indicates the direction of the target relative to the position of the sun, the liveliness and length of the dance, how rich the food source is; and the tempo of the dance, the distance of the food source—for example, in the giant honey-bee Apis dorsata , 40 complete figures...

perspective

perspective   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,844 words
Illustration(s):
7

... b. whatever their geometric relationships. Fig. 3. a. A painter at his canvas painting a scene of a rectangular grid with ziggurat. Dashed lines in the grid are parallel to the canvas (transversals), solid lines are perpendicular to it. b. Depiction of the scene as projecting to the plane of the canvas, with the perpendicular lines converging at the central vanishing point, while the transversals remain parallel to it. Fig. 4. Early example of central perspective . Herod's Feast by Masolino (1435), where many receding horizontal lines project to...

films, perception of

films, perception of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,585 words
Illustration(s):
6

...in any one place, or that are too large to display all at once on the screen in sufficient detail. View changes can be continuous or discontinuous. That is, the camera may move continuously, as shown by the solid arrow in Fig. 1, from one station (1) to another (2), moving perpendicular to the line of sight (as in the tracking shot , Fig. 1 a ), or moving in the direction of the line of sight (as in the dolly shot , Fig. 1 c ). These movements, or their combinations, usually offer visual information about the depth relationships within the scene (for...

Healthy and Pathological Neurocognitive Aging: Spectral and Functional Connectivity Analyses Using Magnetoencephalography

Healthy and Pathological Neurocognitive Aging: Spectral and Functional Connectivity Analyses Using Magnetoencephalography   Reference library

Gianluca Susi, Jaisalmer de Frutos-Lucas, Guiomar Niso, Su Miao Ye-Chen, Luis Antón Toro, Brenda Nadia Chino Vilca, and Fernando Maestú

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,454 words
Illustration(s):
4

...contribute also to MEG signals, although to a lesser extent ( Haueisen, Ramon, Czapski, & Eiselt, 1995 ; Rezaie, Simos, Fletcher, Denton, & Papanicolaou, 2012 ). Pyramidal neurons are arranged in the form of a palisade, with their main axes parallel to each other and perpendicular to the cortical surface and the apical dendrites oriented toward the pial surface of the cortex ( Hansen et al., 2010 ; Lopes da Silva, 2009 ; Snell, 2010 ). Such features are ideal for the generation of coherent magnetic fields when adjacent neurons activate with a...

horizontal cell

horizontal cell  

A type of cell in the retina that lacks an axon, lying perpendicular to the sensory pathway and linking photoreceptors and bipolar cells, one of its important functions being to inhibit neurons ...
Lissajous figure

Lissajous figure  

A curve traced out by a point moving in simple harmonic motion in two directions perpendicular to each other, the shape of the curve being determined by the relative frequencies and phases of the ...
kinetic depth effect

kinetic depth effect  

A phenomenon, discovered by the German-born US psychologist Hans Wallach (1904–98) and co-workers in 1953, in which a moving two-dimensional shadow cast by a three-dimensional object such as a rod ...
ocular-dominance column

ocular-dominance column  

Any of the alternating slabs of cells perpendicular to the surface of the primary visual cortex (Area V1), approximately half a millimetre wide and extending through all six cortical layers, ...
waggle dance

waggle dance  

One of two patterns of movement, described by the Austrian zoologist Karl von Frisch (1886–1982) in a series of publications from 1924 onwards, through which a female honey-bee communicates to other ...
Pulfrich effect

Pulfrich effect  

A visual illusion that is seen when a pendulum such as a length of string with a weight attached to one end is swung from side to side in a plane perpendicular to the line of vision. If it is viewed ...
hair cell

hair cell  

Any of the cylindrical or flask-shaped sensory receptor cells for hearing in the organ of Corti of the cochlea, or any of the similar cells in the vestibular system that are involved in the sense of ...
functional brain imaging

functional brain imaging   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,146 words

...the skull to create an image of brain anatomy. MRI scanners use a powerful static magnetic field that causes the spin of protons (the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, found in molecules throughout the brain) to align with it. The application of a radio‐frequency pulse (radio wave) perpendicular to this field causes the spins to be perturbed. As they relax back to their original alignment the protons give off signals which subtly vary in strength depending on the density of brain tissue that they come from. These signals can be detected by a receiver coil and analysed...

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