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Overview

Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

vector resolution

A method of determining component vectors from a resultant vector A graphical operation replaces a single vector with two perpendicular vectors in such a way that the vector composition of the two ...

moment arm

The shortest perpendicular distance between a force's line of action and an axis of rotation (e.g. a pivot). In a lever, the moment arm of the force is often referred to as the force arm and that of ...

longitudinal axis

An imaginary line (one of the anatomical reference axes) running down the centre of the body perpendicular to the transverse plane, around which rotations in the transverse plane (e.g. a body spin ...

anatomical reference axis

One of three axes that describes human motion. Each axis is orientated perpendicular to one of the three cardinal planes of motion. See also anteroposterior axis, longitudinal axis, transverse axis.

rotary component

The component of muscle force acting perpendicular to the long axis of the attached bone of joint. It is the only component that actually causes rotation.

transverse axis

An imaginary line (one of the anatomical reference axes) that runs perpendicular to the sagittal plane, along which sagittal rotations occur. During running, for example, the major axes of rotation ...

resistance arm

The perpendicular distance from the axis of a lever to the point of resistance in the lever.

coefficient of limiting friction

Coefficient of friction, which applies to two bodies in contact that have not yet begun to move. Its value equals the maximum static friction divided by the perpendicular force pressing the two ...

normal

A line perpendicular to the surface injuries and aggravate pre-existing ones, at the point of contact of a body.

For a lever, the ratio of the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the effort from the fulcrum, to the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the resistance or load from the ...

angle of reflection

For colliding bodies, the angle that the direction of velocity makes with the perpendicular to the surface at the point of impact. When applied to the behaviour of a ball, the angle formed by the ...

lever

A simple machine consisting of a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum. The mechanical advantage or force ratio of a lever (the ratio of load to effort) is equal to the ratio of the perpendicular ...

form drag

The difference between the pressure acting on the front surface of a body moving through a fluid and the pressure acting on its rear surface. Form drag of an asymmetrical body depends on its ...

Magnus effect

The deviation in the trajectory of a spinning projectile caused by the Magnus force. The deviation is toward the direction of the spin and results from pressure differentials in the spinning ...

lift

A force acting on a body in a fluid in a direction perpendicular to fluid flow. Lift may assume any direction as determined by the direction of fluid flow and the orientation of the body; it is not ...

Bernoulli effect

A hydrodynamic effect due to the relationship between relative velocity and relative pressure, which acts on an object as it moves through a fluid. The pressure exerted on the object by the fluid ...

sledge apparatus

Equipment used to investigate the mechanical efficiency of isolated concentric and eccentric exercises, and exercises involving stretch-shortening cycles. The apparatus consists of a sledge with a ...

normal reaction force

A force acting perpendicular to two surfaces in contact with each other. It is a measure of the force holding the two surfaces together. The larger the normal reaction force, the larger the value of ...

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