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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

horizontal cell

horizontal cell n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...cell n . A type of cell in the retina that lacks an axon , lying perpendicular to the sensory pathway and linking photoreceptors and bipolar cells , one of its important functions being to inhibit neurons outside the immediate zone of excitation. Compare amacrine cell...

Lissajous figure

Lissajous figure n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...figure n. A curve traced out by a point moving in simple harmonic motion in two directions perpendicular to each other, the shape of the curve being determined by the relative frequencies and phases of the motion. If the motion is observed for some time on an oscilloscope screen, the direction of apparent rotation appears to reverse spontaneously. [Named after the French physicist Jules Antoine Lissajous ( 1822–80 ) who first constructed...

kinetic depth effect

kinetic depth effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the object is held obliquely and rotated about its centre, causing complex transformations that make the shadow appear to move in front and behind the surface on which it is cast. The three-dimensional effect disappears if the rod stops moving, or if it rotates in a plane perpendicular to the surface on which the shadow is cast, causing the shadow merely to lengthen and shorten as the rod rotates. It is closely related to the windmill illusion . See also structure from motion . KDE abbrev...

ocular-dominance column

ocular-dominance column n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...column n . Any of the alternating slabs of cells perpendicular to the surface of the primary visual cortex (Area V1), approximately half a millimetre wide and extending through all six cortical layers, appearing after special staining procedures as orderly stripes, with all the cells in a slab responding mainly to inputs from the same eye, and in layer 4C, which receives inputs directly from the lateral geniculate nuclei, responding only to inputs from the dominant eye for that particular slab. The anatomical basis of this alternation is...

hair cell

hair cell n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...into electrical nerve impulses. A mammalian hair cell responds along its axis of maximum sensitivity to movements of its tip of 100 picometres (trillionths of a metre, about the same distance as the diameter of some atoms), but is totally insensitive to movement along the perpendicular axis. See also Deiters’ cell , inner hair cell , outer hair cell...

Pulfrich effect

Pulfrich effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...effect n . A visual illusion that is seen when a pendulum such as a length of string with a weight attached to one end is swung from side to side in a plane perpendicular to the line of vision. If it is viewed from a distance with a lens from a pair of sunglasses or a similar dark filter over one eye but with both eyes open, and with attention focused on the centre of the swing, the pendulum appears to move in an ellipse parallel to the floor, clockwise as seen from above if the dark lens is over the left eye and anticlockwise if it is covers the right...

waggle dance

waggle dance n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Psychiatry
Length:
263 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to perform another straight waggling run from the same point, then looping back for a further straight waggling run, and so on, alternating the return loops between left anticlockwise) and right (clockwise) (see illustration). The direction of the waggling run relative to the perpendicular indicates the direction of the target relative to the position of the sun, the liveliness and length of the dance, how rich the food source is; and the tempo of the dance, the distance of the food source—for example, in the giant honey-bee Apis dorsata , 40 complete figures...

Agricultural Technology

Agricultural Technology   Reference library

Alan L. Olmstead and Paul W. Rhode

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...including a multibottom riding plow and improved planters, advanced farm productivity. The spread of check row planters following the Civil War made it possible to drop seeds at uniform distances in straight lines. This allowed horse-drawn cultivators to operate in perpendicular directions when weeding fields. This system both saved labor and increased yields. Mechanical corn pickers were commercialized relatively late and began to diffuse only in the late 1920s when coupled with tractors. Corn holds a special place in the traditional history of...

vector resolution

vector resolution  

A method of determining component vectors from a resultant vector A graphical operation replaces a single vector with two perpendicular vectors in such a way that the vector composition of the two ...
ethmoid

ethmoid  

A bone of the neurocranium forming structures within the nasal cavity such as its roof, perpendicular plate, and the superior and middle conchae. Air cells within the ethmoid bone form sinuses which ...
Maddox rod

Maddox rod  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A series of transparent cylinders that change a point source of light into a linear streak perpendicular to the axis of the rods, used in the assessment of binocular visual functions. E. E. Maddox ...
moment arm

moment arm  

The shortest perpendicular distance between a force's line of action and an axis of rotation (e.g. a pivot). In a lever, the moment arm of the force is often referred to as the force arm and that of ...
longitudinal axis

longitudinal axis  

An imaginary line (one of the anatomical reference axes) running down the centre of the body perpendicular to the transverse plane, around which rotations in the transverse plane (e.g. a body spin ...
anatomical reference axis

anatomical reference axis  

One of three axes that describes human motion. Each axis is orientated perpendicular to one of the three cardinal planes of motion. See also anteroposterior axis, longitudinal axis, transverse axis.
rotary component

rotary component  

The component of muscle force acting perpendicular to the long axis of the attached bone of joint. It is the only component that actually causes rotation.
Thenar flap

Thenar flap  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Vascularized pedicle flap from thenar skin which can be used in the reconstruction of Fingertip injuries. Base is perpendicular to thumb MP flexion crease. Divide after 2 weeks. Keep as ...
transverse axis

transverse axis  

An imaginary line (one of the anatomical reference axes) that runs perpendicular to the sagittal plane, along which sagittal rotations occur. During running, for example, the major axes of rotation ...
Semmes–Weinstein monofilament testing

Semmes–Weinstein monofilament testing  

Reference type:
Overview Page
• Technique of Sensation testing to evaluate light touch and deep pressure.• Uses 20 nylon monofilaments with a constant length, but increasing diameter.• They are applied perpendicular and the ...
resistance arm

resistance arm  

The perpendicular distance from the axis of a lever to the point of resistance in the lever.
coefficient of limiting friction

coefficient of limiting friction  

Coefficient of friction, which applies to two bodies in contact that have not yet begun to move. Its value equals the maximum static friction divided by the perpendicular force pressing the two ...

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