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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

perpendicular style

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Current Version:
2004
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Length:
34 words

... style Final period of English Gothic architecture, from c .1330 to the mid-16th century. Named after the strong vertical lines of its window tracery and panelling, characteristic features are fan vaulting and flattened...

astigmatism

astigmatism   Quick reference

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Current Version:
2004
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Length:
28 words

...Defect of vision in which the curvature of the lens differs from one perpendicular plane to another. It can be compensated for by use of corrective...

polarized light

polarized light   Quick reference

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Current Version:
2004
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Length:
63 words

...light Light waves that have electromagnetic vibrations in only one direction. (Ordinary light vibrates in all directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation.) Scientists distinguish between three types: plane-polarized, circularly polarized, and elliptical-polarized light - each depending on the net direction of the vibrations. Polarizing sunglasses use a Polaroid material to reduce the glare from light polarized by reflection from horizontal...

Westminster Abbey

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Current Version:
2004
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Length:
114 words

...the abbey church of a Benedictine monastery (closed 1539 ). In 1050 , Edward the Confessor began to build a Norman church on the site. In 1245 , Henry III began work on the present structure. The Lady Chapel, dedicated to Henry VII , is a fine example of the perpendicular style . The two western towers were built ( 1722–45 ) by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor . The 19th-century restoration was managed by Sir George Gilbert Scott . The Abbey is cruciform in plan. Since William the Conqueror , most English monarchs have been...

solar constant

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2004
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...constant Steady rate at which energy from the Sun is received from just outside the Earth's atmosphere. Its value is c .1.353 kilowatts per square metre (perpendicular to the Sun's...

waterfall

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2004
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38 words

...Point in the course of a river at which the water drops perpendicularly. The site usually indicates an outcrop of rock that is particularly resistant to erosion. Spectacular falls include Angel Falls , Niagara Falls , and Victoria Falls...

Early English

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Current Version:
2004
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59 words

...developed a native Gothic idiom: Canterbury Cathedral is an early example. Later works emphasized appearance: builders ornamented visible walls, such as Rievaulx Abbey, or made prominent use of vault ribbing, such as Lincoln Cathedral . See also decorated style ; perpendicular...

parallelogram

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Current Version:
2004
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Length:
50 words

...Quadrilateral (four-sided plane figure) having each pair of opposite sides parallel and equal. Both the opposite angles of a parallelogram are also equal. Its area is the product of one side and its perpendicular distance from the opposite side. A parallelogram with all four sides equal is a rhombus...

Pisa

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Current Version:
2004
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Length:
75 words

...from c .180 bc . In the Middle Ages, it was a powerful maritime republic but later came under Florentine domination. It is noted for its 12th-century ‘Leaning Tower’, an eight-storey circular campanile. The bell-tower is 54m (177ft) high, and is now c .6.5m (21ft) out of perpendicular. Industries: tourism, textiles, glass, machine tools. Pop. ( 1999 )...

reflection

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2004
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71 words

...Change in direction of part or all of a wave . When a wave, such as a light or sound wave, encounters a surface separating two different media, it bounces back into the original medium. The incident wave (striking the surface), reflected wave, and the normal (line perpendicular to the surface) all lie in the same plane; the incident wave and reflected wave make equal angles with the normal. See also ...

precession

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2004
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85 words

...Wobble of the axis of a spinning object. It occurs as a result of the torque on the spin axis, which increases as the angle of precession increases. The Earth precesses about a line through its centre and perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic extremely slowly (a complete revolution taking 25,800 years) at an angle of 23.5°. The motion of a gyroscope is another consequence of precession, because the entire ring containing the spinning wheel and its axle precesses around the support...

prism

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...In mathematics, a solid geometrical figure whose ends are congruent (most commonly triangles) and perpendicular to the length, with the other faces rectangles. The volume of a prism is equal to the area of the end multiplied by the length of the prism. In physics, a prism is a piece of transparent material, such as glass, plastic or quartz, in which a light beam is refracted (bent) and split into its component colours...

torque

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68 words

...of a force. A turbine produces a torque on its rotating shaft to turn a generator. The output of a rotary engine , such as the familiar four-stroke engine or an electric motor, is rated by the torque it can develop. A measurement is made by multiplying the force by its perpendicular distance from the turning point. The unit of measurement is the newton metre ( Nm...

refraction

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
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Length:
110 words

...Bending of a wave, such as a light or sound wave, when it crosses the boundary between two media, such as air and glass, and changes velocity. The incident wave (striking the surface), refracted wave and the normal (line perpendicular to the surface) all lie in the same plane. The incident wave and refracted wave make an angle of incidence, i , and an angle of refraction, r , with the normal. The index of refraction for a transparent medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in the medium. Snell's law states that this ratio...

perp

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A Dictionary of Abbreviations

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
2 words

... ...

BP

BP   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Abbreviations

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
3 words

... between ...

FP

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A Dictionary of Abbreviations

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
3 words

... forward ...

LBP

LBP   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Abbreviations

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
4 words

... length between ...

IPMC

IPMC   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Abbreviations

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
5 words

... in-flight perpendicular motion...

Britain

Britain: c. 800,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...kind of knighthood with the Order of the Garter, conferred purely as an honour Garter, Order of the A Dictionary of British History 1 rev Britain 1066-1500 14th century Social and domestic British Isles Europe Society c. 1350 1350 The Perpendicular style develops from the Decorated phase in English Gothic architecture Perpendicular The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms 2 Britain 1066-1500 14th century Architecture British architecture British Isles Gothic Europe c. 1350 1350 Water power is used in England for the heavy work of fulling cloth, in mills which...

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