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Overview

Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Canadian trunk strength test

Canadian trunk strength test   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
106 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trunk strength test A test of the muscular endurance of the abdominal muscles (see figure). Canadian trunk strength test ▪ Lie on your back with the knees flexed at 90 degrees and your fingertips touching a strip of masking tape placed perpendicular to your body. Perform a slow, partial curl-up by flattening out your lower back, then curling up your upper spine until your fingertips touch a second strip of masking tape, 8 cm from the first strip. Return to the start position and repeat as many times as you can at a rate of 20 curl-ups per minute, up to a...

cheese knife

cheese knife   Reference library

Brent A. Wasser

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...deep copper vat traditionally used in Alp cheesemaking. Cheesemakers change the orientation of the harp while slowly yet deftly passing it through the curd, resulting in uniform curd pieces. Cheese knives designed for flat-bottomed Cheddar vats are often square, with a handle perpendicular to the wires that facilitates pulling the tool through the shallow curd. Cheesemakers often have two cheese knives, one strung vertically and one strung horizontally. To cut the curd into evenly sized pieces, they first draw the horizontal cheese harp through the curd, then...

reverse osmosis

reverse osmosis   Reference library

Jamie Goode and Julia Harding

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...osmosis is an increasingly popular though rather controversial winemaking intervention or manipulation based on the principle of cross-flow or tangential membrane filtration. In standard filtration procedures, the liquid flows perpendicularly to the filter surface, making clogging a major problem. In cross-flow filtration, the liquid flows parallel to the filter membrane so that it helps scour the surface and prevent clogging. The liquid flows at pressure, and it is this pressure that causes water and some salts to pass through the membrane filter....

Mosel

Mosel   Reference library

David Schildknecht

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,515 words

...the Saar’s confluence with the Mosel near Trier, comes a hairpin turn with outstanding vineyards along its right bank at Filzen and Kanzem, the latter’s Altenberg among the entire Mosel’s handful of finest vineyards. Across the river at Wawern, the Herrenberg and Goldberg—perpendicular to the river—are being revived. The Saar straightens to north-south orientation just upstream from Kanzem at Wiltingen, whose Braune Kupp, Gottesfuss, Kupp, and Hölle are all first-rate. The fame of Wiltingen’s towering Scharzhofberg is nowadays rightly associated with the...

hammer mill

hammer mill   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of a round, usually horizontal, metal housing. The top of the housing has an opening for the kernels to enter, whereas the bottom half of the housing is perforated and serves as a screening sieve. A spindle is centrally mounted inside the housing. On it are fixed one or more perpendicular disks and from the periphery of each disk protrude many fix-mounted or pivoting flat vanes, bars, pins, or “hammers.” Depending on the shape of the hammer, the mill may also be called a pin mill. As the spindle and the disks rotate, the hammers smash the kernels to bits until...

cookie molds and stamps

cookie molds and stamps   Reference library

Sharon Hudgins

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,022 words
Illustration(s):
1

...batter is enclosed and baked within the two sides of the mold. Examples include Norwegian krumkake and goro , Czech oplatky , Italian pizzele , and Indonesian kue semprong . Rosette irons are a special type of cookie mold, resembling a branding iron, with a long handle perpendicular to a metal mold shaped like a flower, star, snowflake, Christmas tree, or other symbol. The metal part is first heated in hot oil, then dipped in batter, and quickly returned to the hot oil. After the bottom of the batter has been fried on the mold, the partially cooked batter...

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