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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Nun and the Rope to Earth

Nun and the Rope to Earth (Mondari, Mandari/Sudan)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...to Earth (Mondari, Mandari/Sudan) Nun is a creator and protector spirit. The cosmos and the world are the work of the creator. The ancestral spirits, Nutu Ko Kak, visit the people from time to time and receive offerings of food. The earth and sky were originally joined by a perpendicular rope, allowing the creator and men to pass at will from the one to the other. In this primordial universe, the lower part, the earth, lacked natural and social diversity. The rope was eventually severed after the sin of fratricide was committed, and earth and the parts...

Hafod

Hafod   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the din of falling water reverberates through the cave, and makes us hesitate about committing ourselves to its damp and gloomy recesses. … on turning suddenly to the left, a rude aperture admits the light, and a sparkling sheet of water, in front of the aperture, urges its perpendicular fall from the rock above, into a deep hollow below the cave.’ Johnes died in 1816 and the estate subsequently changed hands more than once. By the end of the Second World War the gardens had started to decline. In 1994 the Hafod Trust was set up to restore them and in ...

Canadian trunk strength test

Canadian trunk strength test   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
106 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trunk strength test A test of the muscular endurance of the abdominal muscles (see figure). Canadian trunk strength test ▪ Lie on your back with the knees flexed at 90 degrees and your fingertips touching a strip of masking tape placed perpendicular to your body. Perform a slow, partial curl-up by flattening out your lower back, then curling up your upper spine until your fingertips touch a second strip of masking tape, 8 cm from the first strip. Return to the start position and repeat as many times as you can at a rate of 20 curl-ups per minute, up to a...

Mandalay

Mandalay   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...is a royal precinct in the shape of a perfect square surrounded by a wide moat and a brickwork defensive wall. The wall is pierced by twelve gates, three on each side, crowned with multistoried tiered pavilions ( B. pyatthat ), symbols of royal authority. Broad avenues run perpendicularly from the gates to the center of the royal compound where the palace and ancillary buildings are located. Destroyed during Allied bombing in World War II, these structures have recently been restored. The city’s most famous shrine is the Mahāmuni pagoda, which houses the...

Long Melford

Long Melford   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
125 words

...Melford Suffolk Village stretching for 2 m. along the A134, just N of Sudbury. At the N end the large green is dominated by the Perpendicular church. In the Clopton chantry chapel ( c. 1496 ) the ceiling is decorated by verses on a scroll said to be by John Lydgate ( d. 1450 ), one‐time monk at Bury St Edmunds. Edmund Blunden , who returned from Hong Kong in 1965 , lived at Hall Mill. He died in 1974 and is buried in the churchyard. A souvenir collection of his poems is on sale in the church, for which he wrote a guide. Patricia Beer's 1967 poem...

Elstow

Elstow   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
242 words

...Lane and following the signpost beside the brook. Except in dry weather the going is heavy and the mud can be a chastening reminder of the Slough of Despond. The village church dates from the foundation of Elstow Abbey in 1078 . It was extensively restored in 1880 , but the Perpendicular font in which Bunyan was baptized on 30 November 1628 is still there. The Bunyan memorial windows in the N and S aisles illustrating The Holy War and The Pilgrim's Progress were added in 1880 . The Moot Hall on the green, a medieval market hall and manorial court,...

cheese knife

cheese knife   Reference library

Brent A. Wasser

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...deep copper vat traditionally used in Alp cheesemaking. Cheesemakers change the orientation of the harp while slowly yet deftly passing it through the curd, resulting in uniform curd pieces. Cheese knives designed for flat-bottomed Cheddar vats are often square, with a handle perpendicular to the wires that facilitates pulling the tool through the shallow curd. Cheesemakers often have two cheese knives, one strung vertically and one strung horizontally. To cut the curd into evenly sized pieces, they first draw the horizontal cheese harp through the curd, then...

reverse osmosis

reverse osmosis   Reference library

Jamie Goode and Julia Harding

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...osmosis is an increasingly popular though rather controversial winemaking intervention or manipulation based on the principle of cross-flow or tangential membrane filtration. In standard filtration procedures, the liquid flows perpendicularly to the filter surface, making clogging a major problem. In cross-flow filtration, the liquid flows parallel to the filter membrane so that it helps scour the surface and prevent clogging. The liquid flows at pressure, and it is this pressure that causes water and some salts to pass through the membrane filter....

Holywell

Holywell   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
525 words

...According to legend, Prince Caradoc attempted to seduce Winefride and struck off her head when she ran from him. She was miraculously restored to life by St Beuno, her uncle, and a spring of water gushed from the place where her head had fallen. In the late 15th c. a fine Perpendicular Gothic chapel was built over the well, which was housed in the lofty fan‐vaulted crypt. Celia Fiennes described her visit in 1698 : I saw abundance of devout papists on their knees all round the well … there are stone steps for the persons to descend who will bathe...

POKER against grate

POKER against grate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Superstitions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Society and culture, Customs and Traditions
Length:
645 words

...Life of Johnson 10 Oct. BOSWELL. ‘Why, Sir, do people play this trick which I observe now, when I look at your grate, putting the shovel against it to make it burn?’ johnson . ‘They play the trick, but it does not make the fire burn. There is a better; (setting the poker perpendicularly up at right angles with the grate.) In the days of superstition they thought, as it made a cross with the bars, it would drive away the witch.’ 1813 BRAND Antiquities II 606 n. Whatever may be the reason, it is a certain fact that setting up a Poker before a Fire has a...

Mosel

Mosel   Reference library

David Schildknecht

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,515 words

...the Saar’s confluence with the Mosel near Trier, comes a hairpin turn with outstanding vineyards along its right bank at Filzen and Kanzem, the latter’s Altenberg among the entire Mosel’s handful of finest vineyards. Across the river at Wawern, the Herrenberg and Goldberg—perpendicular to the river—are being revived. The Saar straightens to north-south orientation just upstream from Kanzem at Wiltingen, whose Braune Kupp, Gottesfuss, Kupp, and Hölle are all first-rate. The fame of Wiltingen’s towering Scharzhofberg is nowadays rightly associated with the...

Wakeboarding

Wakeboarding   Reference library

Melissa MEAD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
1,484 words

...trick has a different name: examples include Whirlybird, KGB, Tootsie Roll, Fruit Loop, Slurpee, tantrum, backroll, and 360. A rider can perform a trick from either heel-side or toe-side, depending on preference. A rider performing a tantrum does a back flip over the wake perpendicular to the direction of the board. Doing a backroll requires the rider to do a back flip or a roll over the wake parallel to the board. A rider completing a 360 will spin 360 degrees while jumping over the wake. Wakeboarding is a freestyle sport, meaning that it gives the...

Volleyball, Beach

Volleyball, Beach   Reference library

Kristine DRAKICH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
1,776 words

...usual sequence of contacts is pass (forearm pass or dig), set (volley or overhand pass), and attack (hit or spike) over the net. The attack cannot be completed with the use of an open-handed tip. If the ball is set, or volleyed over the net to the opponents, it must be set perpendicular to the shoulders of the player setting the ball. No substitution of players is allowed. During each match each team is allowed two timeouts of thirty seconds. Teams also switch sides every multiple of five points (4–1, 6–4, for example) with a thirty-second rest between side...

Soaring

Soaring   Reference library

Walter D. MILLER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
2,632 words

...is recognized as very dangerous and little used in modern glider flying. The safe rule is to avoid thunderstorms. Mountain Wave Flying For mountain wave flying, gliders find strong lift produced downwind of mountains as the mountains are struck by strong winds at near-perpendicular angles. These winds can propel a glider thousands of meters above the altitudes where it first encountered the mountain wave lift. Many world records have been set, particularly in the United States, where mountain wave phenomena lend themselves to strong updrafts and great...

Fishing

Fishing   Reference library

Debra Ann BALLINGER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,547 words

...spool open, and turned 90 degrees (hence the name turntable )—or parallel with the rod—during casting, a position that allowed the line to slip easily and rapidly off the spool during the casting phase. For reeling line in, the spool was returned to its original position, perpendicular to the rod. Further reel refinement by Holden Illingworth , an English textile magnate, led to the fixed spool or spinning reel used today. By the 1930s, the fixed-spool reel was the tool of choice in Europe, and after World War II, in North America and the rest of the world,...

Gymnastics, History of

Gymnastics, History of   Reference library

A. B. FREDERICK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
2,910 words

...it to charge. The lightened skin along with noisemakers from both sides would cause the bull to charge up and down in a more-or-less straight line. The leaper (without makeup), cartwheeling over the bull, would then have a clear shot at leaping the bull running from a line perpendicular to its path. Gymnastics of this kind was not contested in the ancient Olympic games, although the Greeks used such words as “ gymnos ” or “ gymnastes .” Here again, “ gymnastiks ” simply referred to all forms of exercise. Similarly, the term “gymnasium” refers to the room...

Curling

Curling   Reference library

Morris MOTT

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,641 words

...its throws. They forfeit the match if they fail to do so. Curling Rinks A standard curling rink is between 14.5 and 15 feet wide and at least 146 feet long. As each end is played, only 132 feet of the 146 feet are in play. A centerline bisects the length of the ice, and four perpendicular lines cross the width of the ice at both ends. ( See figure 1 .) The house is centered where the tee line intersects the centerline. The stone must be released before its leading edge touches the near hog line. If a player is still in contact with a stone as it crosses the...

Track and Field—Jumping and Throwing

Track and Field—Jumping and Throwing   Reference library

Angela ALBERS and Martin SHORT

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
4,158 words

...and clear the crossbar; they may touch the crossbar, but if it falls because they touched it the jump becomes a miss. Athletes can use a variety of techniques to clear the crossbar; the Fosbury flop, however, is the most popular. Using this technique an athlete sprints at a perpendicular angle toward the crossbar, then curves and leaps backward over the crossbar, forming a J . The athlete pivots the head, facing upward so that the head clears the crossbar first, and then arches the back over the crossbar as the rest of the body follows, finishing with a leg...

quatrefoil

quatrefoil  

An ornamental design of four lobes or leaves as used in architectural tracery, resembling a flower or clover leaf.
flint

flint  

Variety of chert, which occurs commonly as nodules and bands in chalk. It is deposited in the porous, permeable structures of sponge, diatom, and echinoid skeletons and also in burrows.

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