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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Mandalay

Mandalay   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...is a royal precinct in the shape of a perfect square surrounded by a wide moat and a brickwork defensive wall. The wall is pierced by twelve gates, three on each side, crowned with multistoried tiered pavilions ( B. pyatthat ), symbols of royal authority. Broad avenues run perpendicularly from the gates to the center of the royal compound where the palace and ancillary buildings are located. Destroyed during Allied bombing in World War II, these structures have recently been restored. The city’s most famous shrine is the Mahāmuni pagoda, which houses the...

῾Ein-Fara

῾Ein-Fara   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...natural crevice-like appearance of their mouths was not touched, thus concealing the existence of a large chamber hollowed out of the rock beyond. On the basis of size and shape the caves were classified into several types: small cells (6–10 square meters in area) cut in the perpendicular bank or high in the inner wall of a large, natural cave; cells in several levels along a narrow natural crevice; and caves with a large inner chamber. Storage cells were cut in the walls of some caves, and some caves had built-in cisterns. A peculiar feature, common to some...

Chantries

Chantries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
714 words

...in the parish churches and more chantry priests than ordinary parish clergy. Many churches and cathedrals had special chantry chapels and altars where “masses satisfactory” were offered. Some of these, such as Prince Arthur's chantry at Worcester, were exceptional examples of perpendicular Gothic architecture and contained fine sculpture. Large chantry endowments might provide for the daily singing of a mass satisfactory; smaller sums could assure periodic remembrance (a “month's mind” or “year's mind”). The belief in purgatory and the chantries associated with...

Elephantine Texts

Elephantine Texts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Twenty-eight belong to Elephantine ( TAD A3.1–10, 4.1–10, 5.2, 5.5, 6.1–2) or Syene ( TAD A2.1–4), written in the fifth century bce . Unlike contracts, letters were usually written on both sides of the papyrus (except TAD A3.4, 3.9, 4.4, 5.2), beginning on the side perpendicular to the fibers. The bottoms were then turned up and the letters were concluded on the side parallel to the fibers. Occasionally, the piece was turned sideways ( TAD A3.9). There were two standard sheet widths: scroll height approximately 32 centimeters ( TAD A3.4–10, 4.2–4,...

Ghweir, Wadi

Ghweir, Wadi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to a depth of about 2 meters (7 feet). A large stone juts out on the southern end of the tomb, where the skeleton head is to be found. The skeleton was placed in a niche at the bottom of the grave, but along the east wall. The niche was covered by slanting stone slabs set perpendicular to the niche. Sherds of bowls or jars were placed over the covering stones. An almost completely restorable jar found in tomb 18 bears a Hebrew inscription of which only the name Yehoḥanan , written in black ink on the shoulder near its handle, was decipherable. The remains...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,073 words

...England was well supplied with parish churches, cathedrals, and monasteries by the beginning of the sixteenth century. The Perpendicular Gothic style, which had come into use about 1350 , was unique to England, although it had some similarities to Flamboyant Gothic in France. English Perpendicular buildings were characterized by large windows, divided into sections by stone tracery bars meeting each other at perpendicular angles. Cathedrals and the most elaborate parish churches had fan-vaulted ceilings of stone, while the usual church had a timber...

Contracts

Contracts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in narrow horizontal strips from the top down to the end of the upper copy, tied with string looped and knotted at several points, and in at least one case (deed of sale Mur 29) sealed. Witnesses affixed their signatures on the back of the sheet, one next to each of the ties, perpendicular to the direction of the writing of the text on the front. The bottom copy would be similarly folded in horizontal strips from the bottom up, but neither tied nor sealed. The two copies are known, therefore, as the inner and outer (in 5/6Ḥev 12.3: en tois exoterois ) copies,...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...The scribes of all the above documents, foremost of the biblical scrolls, follow rabbinic instructions for writing holy books. Most letters measure 0.3 by 0.3 centimeters and hang from horizontal dry rulings, as is the custom in ancient Hebrew manuscripts. In some cases, a perpendicular line of dots guides the scribe in the marking of the dry rulings, and where these are missing, the letter tops form a straight line. Larger letters like lamed, qof , and the final forms of kaf, nun, pe , and tsadi are 0.6 centimeters high, protruding above the heads or...

Mosque

Mosque   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
18,226 words
Illustration(s):
5

...a century before in the al-Aqsā Mosque at Jerusalem. Built by the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd between 709 and 715 , the al-Aqṣā was severely damaged in the earthquake of 747 and was almost entirely rebuilt and enlarged by al-Mahdī ( r. 775–785 ), with aisles running perpendicular to the qiblah wall. By contrast, the congregational mosque al-Walīd built at Damascus ( 705–715 ) had a lofty central hall flanked by gable-roofed wings that were divided into three lateral aisles by two rows of columns. The columns supported riwāq walls pierced by arched...

Economics

Economics   Reference library

Anne Goddeeris, Cynthia Shafer-Elliott, Melissa Mueller, Matthew J. Perry, Neil Elliott, Carrie Elaine Duncan, and Agnes Choi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,716 words

...often referred to as “the Israelite house,” “the pillared house,” “the four-room house,” and “the Iron Age house.” Excavated Iron Age dwellings in Israel have a similar plan and common features: a back broad room with one to three (typically three) rooms or chambers running perpendicular to the broad room, frequently divided by pillars. The social aspect of the bet ʾav consisted primarily of related family members: the father (or patriarch), the mother (or matriarch), possibly secondary wives, unmarried children and paternal sisters, and married sons and...

Divriği

Divriği   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
550 words

...whom several remarkable buildings and fortifications were erected. The Kale (“citadel”) Mosque, constructed for the Mangujak sovereign Shahinshah ibn Sulayman ibn Amir Ishak by the builder Hasan ibn Piruz of Maragha in 1180–81 , is a simple structure of three aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall. The wider central aisle has a barrel vault, while the side aisles are each covered by four cupolas. A small kiosk once stood against the northwest corner of the building, but only its lower part remains. The masonry portal was once decorated with glazed...

Farrukh Chela

Farrukh Chela (fl. c.1580–c.1604)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
483 words

...deep landscape with rocky vistas, usually of boulders punctuated with hairy plants or shrubs; and in later stages a deep ink-blue strip as sky, other colors ranging from brick red to a pale mauve. He typically divided space in horizontal platform-like plateaux, sometimes with perpendicular drops and vertical, regular, panel-like shading. His human figures lacked vitality and were sometimes finished or touched up by such celebrated painters as Basawan, Manohar and Dhanraj. His animal figures on the other hand are quite animated, as in an illustration from an ...

Mahdia

Mahdia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
574 words

...there was a palace for al-Mahdi, another for his son and successor al-Qa῾im ( r. 934–46 ), and underground storehouses, wells and cisterns. The mosque ( 916 ) was the first mosque built by the Fatimids. It is largely modeled on the Great Mosque of Kairouan, with nine naves perpendicular to the qibla wall, double colonnades along the axial aisle and a T-plan formed by a wide axial aisle and the aisle along the qibla wall, but the Fatimids replaced the massive minaret of the prototype with a monumental projecting portal ( see Architecture , fig. 16). The...

Madinat al-Zahra

Madinat al-Zahra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,473 words
Illustration(s):
1

...al-jund ; (d), dwellings of palace officials (e) and service areas. The dār al-jund ( c. 958 ) has a transverse rectangular room with square chambers at either end that opens south on to a square court (f) surrounded by porticos. It opens north to a hall of five parallel perpendicular aisles separated by columns, piers and walls covered with plain stucco with molding. Large horseshoe arches between the triple-arch arcades on either side of the central aisle modify this basilican scheme to create a somewhat cruciform plan. A zigzag ramp on the east connected...

Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,387 words

...to articulate a clearer sense of what Gothic actually amounted to. The research of the antiquary Thomas Rickman ( 1776–1841 ) proved particularly important in this respect, not least by categorizing the development of medieval styles into Norman, Early-English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, and helping to distinguish between the Romanesque and the Gothic. This Gothic Revival was a genuinely pan-European movement, with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( 1749–1842 ) wanting to substitute the term ‘German’ for ‘Gothic’ and the French politician François-René de...

Tughra

Tughra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
996 words

...the letters nūn and sīn . Under the Ottomans the tughra was used only in documents sent from the capital to the provinces. High officials, who sometimes used a similarly shaped monogram of their own, did not put it at the top of the document but rather on the right margin, perpendicular to the text. The earliest Ottoman tughras were rather simple, written in black or gold ink. During the reign of Selim I ( r. 1512–20 ), blue ink outlined in gold or blue on a gold ground became fashionable, and fine spiral and arabesque designs filled the curves. Towards the...

Amman

Amman   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
731 words

...measuring 65.8×39.7 m was erected in the lower town in the 8th century (destr. 1924 ); according to the Palestinian geographer al-Muqaddasi, writing in 985, it was decorated with mosaic. It had a standard plan for the period: a prayer-hall with horseshoe arches running perpendicular to the south (qibla) wall and a courtyard built of fine limestone masonry to the north. A square minaret was added, probably in the 12th century. After earthquake damage in 747 and the transfer of the center of the Islamic caliphate from Syria to Iraq after 750, Amman's...

Sivas

Sivas   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
809 words

...period are distinguished by an inventive combination of decorated stone and brick ( see Architecture , §V, C ). The Ulu Cami ( 1197 ), or congregational mosque, is a hypostyle stone structure, with an open court and ten rows of rectangular piers supporting arcades perpendicular to the qibla wall on which the flat timber and earthen roof rest. The brick minaret (?1213) in the southeast corner has tile-mosaic decoration on the base and two religious inscriptions on the shaft. The Darüşşifa ( 1217–18 ), or hospital of the Saljuq sultan ῾Izz al-Din...

Kairouan

Kairouan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,275 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the reign of Abu Ibrahim Ahmad . The mosque is a roughly rectangular structure with maximum interior dimensions of 122×70 m; it has a court surrounded by arcades and a hypo style prayer-hall occupying about one-third of the surface area. The prayer-hall, which has 17 aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall, has domes at either end of the wider central aisle. One stands over the bay in front of the mihrab, and the other abuts the courtyard. The colonnades of the central aisle were doubled in the later 9th century to strengthen the building. The mihrab itself is...

Almohad

Almohad   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...mosque in Marrakesh with the first Kutubiyya Mosque (1147–58; fell into ruin at an unknown date; see Architecture , §V, D, 4). The second Kutubiyya (begun 1158 ), an identical extension of the first slightly skewed to the south, has a large prayer-hall with 17 naves perpendicular to the qibla. An aisle along the qibla wall has five cupolas, soberly decorated with muqarnas . The minaret, a square tower standing more than 60 m high at the juncture of the two mosques, is decorated with network panels of foliate arches. It served as a model for virtually...

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