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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

perspective

perspective   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,844 words
Illustration(s):
7

... b. whatever their geometric relationships. Fig. 3. a. A painter at his canvas painting a scene of a rectangular grid with ziggurat. Dashed lines in the grid are parallel to the canvas (transversals), solid lines are perpendicular to it. b. Depiction of the scene as projecting to the plane of the canvas, with the perpendicular lines converging at the central vanishing point, while the transversals remain parallel to it. Fig. 4. Early example of central perspective . Herod's Feast by Masolino (1435), where many receding horizontal lines project to...

films, perception of

films, perception of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,585 words
Illustration(s):
6

...in any one place, or that are too large to display all at once on the screen in sufficient detail. View changes can be continuous or discontinuous. That is, the camera may move continuously, as shown by the solid arrow in Fig. 1, from one station (1) to another (2), moving perpendicular to the line of sight (as in the tracking shot , Fig. 1 a ), or moving in the direction of the line of sight (as in the dolly shot , Fig. 1 c ). These movements, or their combinations, usually offer visual information about the depth relationships within the scene (for...

Reinhardt, Ad

Reinhardt, Ad (1913)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,416 words
Illustration(s):
1

...relationships among lines and planes forming a dynamic “system.” The idealist and utopian construal of concrete form similarly holds true in Mondrian's scheme of things, for, having penetrated nature, abstraction has achieved the “expression of relationships” exclusively. Perpendicularity expresses the “one permanent relationship,” attaining, as it does, an equilibrium of spirit with matter, active with passive, male with female, truth with beauty. Reinhardt will assume the mantle of this aesthetic. By the late 1940s, he will have adapted a version of...

Color

Color   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,532 words

...developed by the painter Albert Munsell ( 1858–1918 ), and the Natural Color System (NCS), the Swedish standard. The former is defined by the samples in an atlas, and employs a hue circle of five equally spaced primaries—red, yellow, green, blue, and purple—surrounding a perpendicular achromatic axis. It uses as its dimensions Hue, Value, and Chroma, with perceptually equal spacing of the samples along each dimension. The Natural Color System proceeds on the assumption that we all carry around in our heads mental representations of the Hering primaries:...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,956 words
Illustration(s):
10

...front of the original grid with the viewing point, and then by connecting the points along the side of the grid, seen in elevation, with the viewing point. This became known as the “plan and elevation” method or costruzione legìttima . In the resulting projection, any lines perpendicular to the picture plane (the “orthogonals”) will converge on a single point (the “centric point,” later known as the “vanishing point”). The horizontal running through the vanishing point came to be called the “horizon.” Much of the rest of Alberti's treatise on painting...

Reinhardt, Ad

Reinhardt, Ad (1913–1967)   Reference library

Marjorie Welish

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,468 words
Illustration(s):
1

...relationships among lines and planes forming a dynamic “system.” The idealist and utopian construal of concrete form similarly holds true in Mondrian’s scheme of things, for, having penetrated nature, abstraction has achieved the “expression of relationships” exclusively. Perpendicularity expresses the “one permanent relationship,” attaining, as it does, an equilibrium of spirit with matter, active with passive, male with female, truth with beauty. Reinhardt will assume the mantle of this aesthetic. By the late 1940s, he will have adapted a version of...

Color

Color   Reference library

Charles A. Riley II and C. L. Hardin

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,686 words

...originally developed by the painter Albert Munsell 1858–1918 ), and the Natural Color System, the Swedish standard. The former is defined by the samples in an atlas and employs a hue circle of five equally spaced primaries—red, yellow, green, blue, and purple—surrounding a perpendicular achromatic axis. It uses as its dimensions hue, value, and chroma, with perceptually equal spacing of the samples along each dimension. The Natural Color System proceeds on the assumption that we all carry around in our heads mental representations of the Hering primaries:...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Christopher S. Wood and Michael Kubovy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,651 words
Illustration(s):
9

...front of the original grid with the viewing point, and then by connecting the points along the side of the grid, seen in elevation, with the viewing point. This became known as the “plan and elevation” method or costruzione legìttima . In the resulting projection, any lines perpendicular to the picture plane (the “orthogonals”) will converge on a single point (the “centric point,” later known as the “vanishing point”). The horizontal running through the vanishing point came to be called the “horizon.” Much of the rest of Alberti’s treatise on painting explained...

quatrefoil

quatrefoil  

An ornamental design of four lobes or leaves as used in architectural tracery, resembling a flower or clover leaf.
flint

flint  

Variety of chert, which occurs commonly as nodules and bands in chalk. It is deposited in the porous, permeable structures of sponge, diatom, and echinoid skeletons and also in burrows.
glass

glass  

[Ma]An artificial material produced by fusing silica sand with an alkali such as potash or sodium. It was probably developed from faience in the Near East during the 3rd millennium bc, but was not ...
Bertrand's paradox

Bertrand's paradox   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
220 words

...the angle between the chord and a tangent at p is either < 60° or > 120°. This is 2/3 the possible angles, which suggests that the probability that ( k < l )= 2/3 . But one of many other possibilities is to view the chord as determined by a perpendicular to a radius. k < l if and only if the perpendicular intersects the radius over half-way between the mid-point of the circle and the circumference, suggesting the probability that ( k < l ) = 2/3 . The ‘a priorist’ technique of finding a ‘random’ method to generate the chord and then dividing the...

relativity theory

relativity theory   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
522 words

...of the observer or the light source. (Although the second assumption may seem plausible in the light of the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887 , which failed to find any difference in the speed of light when measured in the direction of the earth’s rotation or when measured perpendicular to it, it seems likely that Einstein was not influenced by the experiment, and may not even have known the result.) As a consequence of the second postulate, no matter how fast she travels, an observer can never overtake a ray of light, and see it as stationary beside her....

functional brain imaging

functional brain imaging   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,146 words

...the skull to create an image of brain anatomy. MRI scanners use a powerful static magnetic field that causes the spin of protons (the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, found in molecules throughout the brain) to align with it. The application of a radio‐frequency pulse (radio wave) perpendicular to this field causes the spins to be perturbed. As they relax back to their original alignment the protons give off signals which subtly vary in strength depending on the density of brain tissue that they come from. These signals can be detected by a receiver coil and analysed...

SUBLIME

SUBLIME   Reference library

Baldine Saint-Girons

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
5,508 words

...the Greek hupo [ ὑπό ‎] is related to huper [ ὑπέϱ ‎]. Limis (or limus ) is an adjective characterizing an indirect and secretive manner of looking at something (as describes Athena, who is cross-eyed), or else a complex movement of elevation that is, in any event, not perpendicular to the ground. Limen is the noun favored by Sextus Pompeius Festus in the second century CE to explain the etymology of “sublime”: the latter “comes from the upper threshold, because it is above us” ( Festus Grammaticus [ De verborum significatu ], book 17, s.v.). Although...

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