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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Perpendicular architecture

Perpendicular architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
449 words

...dates from the Perpendicular period, but many 14th- and 15th-cent. parish churches, especially in wool-rich East Anglia, exemplify the richness of this architecture; so too do the royal chapels of St George, Windsor ( 1475–1528 ), and of Henry VII , Westminster abbey (begun 1503 ), and, on a smaller scale, the numerous late Gothic chantries and tombs often inserted into earlier ecclesiastical buildings. The Divinity School, Oxford ( 1424–83 ), with its remarkable pendant-vaulted roof, is another excellent example. Quintessentially Perpendicular is King’s...

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)   Reference library

Ronald G. KNAPP

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... siheyuan , the main hall, called a zhengtang , is a low, south-facing, single-story building on the northern side of the courtyard. Within this building the senior generation resides, with space for entertaining guests and family. Bedrooms and studies are also found here. Perpendicular to the main structure is a pair of flanking buildings, one facing east and the other west, normally used to house married sons and their families. An important element of Beijing siheyuan is the set of narrow covered verandas that serve as all-weather passageways around the...

Shang Dynasty

Shang Dynasty (1766 bce–1045 bce)   Reference library

Dallas L. McCURLEY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...tributes from surrounding polities, and many other things. The divinatory method was to apply a hot poker to hollows carved into the bones, causing roughly T-shaped cracks to appear on the opposite side. The king interpreted these according to the degree of angle between perpendicular and cross-bar, and uttered a prognostication based on the divination’s verdict. Following this, the day of the divination, the name of the diviner, the questions asked by the diviner, and the king’s final verdict were inscribed on the bone or plastron, which was stored away...

Cambridge, Great St Mary’s

Cambridge, Great St Mary’s   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
86 words

...Great St Mary’s . Commonly called the university church, this is a fine very late perpendicular parish church on a splendid site between King’s Parade and the Market Square. Rebuilding of the original church was begun in the late 15th cent. but was protracted. The west tower, started in 1491 , was only half-finished in 1550 , completed in 1608 , and the proposed spire was never added. Until the Senate House was built in 1730 , St Mary’s was used for the award of degrees. J. A....

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin   Reference library

A. S. Hargreaves

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
105 words

...the centre of the fledgling medieval university, St Mary’s was the seat of its government, academic disputation, and award of degrees until the mid-17th cent.; the attached Old Congregation House ( c. 1320 ) contained the first university library. Considerably rebuilt in the perpendicular style, it hosted the trials of the Oxford martyrs ( Latimer , Ridley , Cranmer ) in 1554–6 , gained the Laudian ‘Virgin porch’ whose Marian statue so incensed the puritans, heard Wesley and Newman preach, and saw the launch of the ‘Oxford’ or ‘tractarian’ movement for...

Bath abbey

Bath abbey   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
104 words

...abbey is a fine example of late Perpendicular building. Begun in 1499 by Bishop Oliver King , it replaced a larger Norman foundation. The architects, the Vertue brothers, were also responsible for Henry VII ’s chapel at Westminster: each has magnificent fan vaulting. The bishop is said to have been encouraged by a dream showing the ladder to heaven, and the scene is reproduced on the west front. The abbey was a Benedictine foundation and fell into neglect after the dissolution of the monasteries , but, being in the middle of the town, was taken over in...

Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, diocese of

Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
158 words

...the 11th cent. St Edmund’s abbey, founded by Cnut in memory of the East Anglian king martyred by the Danes ( 868 ), was from the first richly endowed and, with its 170 manors, ranked amongst the foremost in England. The cathedral at Bury St Edmunds is the former 15th-cent. Perpendicular parish church adjoining the tower of the ruined former Norman abbey. Transepts and central tower were added to the cathedral in the 20th cent.; further extensions were completed in 1990 . The bishop’s residence is at Ipswich. Suffolk is well known for its many magnificent...

Sheffield, diocese of

Sheffield, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
150 words

...Doncaster would have been a better centre), the see was successfully welded together by the first two bishops, Leonard Burrows ( 1914–39 ) and Leslie Hunter ( 1939–62 ), the latter being particularly noted for his devotion to social welfare. The cathedral is the former Perpendicular parish church ( c. 1430 ), reconstructed in 1880 , with further extensions completed in 1966 . Revd Dr William M....

Pugin, Augustus Welby

Pugin, Augustus Welby (1812–52)   Reference library

Bernard Porter

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
199 words

...were. It was grossly unfair, but influential. Pugin was commissioned to put his set-square where his mouth was all over the country. Alton Towers ( 1836 ), Scarisbrick Hall ( 1837 ), the catholic cathedrals of Birmingham ( 1841 ) and Newcastle ( 1844 ), and the lush Perpendicular-style detailing of the new Houses of Parliament ( 1840–52 )—the classicist Charles Barry did the main plan—are some of the results. They are not the greatest examples of the genre; but Pugin should really be judged by the inspiration he gave to better architects (like ...

Gloucester, diocese of

Gloucester, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
200 words

...tradition of puritanism, which became a target for both James I and Laud . James Monk ( 1830–56 ) was a vigorous bishop, who did much to improve the finances of livings. The Norman cathedral, previously St Peter’s Benedictine abbey church, was partly transformed in perpendicular style, reputedly the earliest example, by the inflow of money from pilgrims to the shrine of Edward II . The tomb of Robert of Normandy , William I ’s eldest son, who died in Cardiff castle, is also there. The 14th-cent. fan-vaulted cloisters are among the finest in...

Worcester, diocese of

Worcester, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
220 words

...writer, who also successfully campaigned for the creation, out of his own see, of the Birmingham diocese of which he became first bishop ( 1905–11 ). The cathedral, though Norman in plan with Norman crypt and chapter house, was largely refashioned in the 19th cent. with a Perpendicular cloister. It contained the shrine of Wulfstan (destroyed at the Reformation) and houses the tomb of King John. Revd Dr William M....

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
522 words

...( c. 1180–1270 ); ‘Decorated’ ( c. 1270–1370 ); ‘Perpendicular’ ( c. 1350–1550 ). The first of these has an austere purity, as in the examples of early Gothic mentioned above, and utilizes the simple, ‘lancet’ window type (e.g. the ‘five sisters’ window in the north transept of York minster, c. 1250 ). The ‘Decorated’ is marked by intricate vaulting and window tracery (as in the nave of Exeter cathedral, 1328–42 , and the early 14th-cent. east window at Carlisle); and the uniquely English ‘Perpendicular’ by even more elaborate vaulting, and ever-larger...

Winchester, diocese of

Winchester, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
350 words

... 1553–5 ), chancellor under Mary; Lancelot Andrewes ( 1619–26 ), scholar and preacher; and Samuel Wilberforce ( 1869–73 ). The present cathedral, the longest in Europe (556 feet), begun in 1079 under Walkelin ( 1070–98 ), is still basically Norman with Early English and Perpendicular additions, and contains the remains of the Saxon kings and a shrine of St Swithin. Revd Dr William M....

architecture

architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,333 words

...and cathedrals which were not only centres of power in their own right, but symbolized the cultural and political superiority of the new regime. The Gothic style flourished from c. 1200 to the early 16th cent., with many uniquely British developments such as the late ‘Perpendicular’ phase. Further potential development along Gothic lines was curtailed by Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries in 1536 . Henry’s break with Rome over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon inhibited possible Italian Renaissance influence, then permeating Europe, as a...

Cambridge, Great St Mary's

Cambridge, Great St Mary's   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
49 words

...Great St Mary's Commonly called the university church, this is a fine late Perpendicular parish church on a splendid site between King's Parade and the Market Square. The west tower, started in 1491 , was only half‐finished in 1550 , completed in 1608 , and the proposed spire was never...

Sheffield, diocese of

Sheffield, diocese of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
77 words

...the York diocese . Though a suffragan see of Sheffield was established in 1901 , only the rapid extension of the Doncaster coalfield enabled the passage of the Three Bishoprics Bill (for Sheffield, Chelmsford , and Bury St Edmunds ) in 1913 . The cathedral is the former Perpendicular parish church ( c. 1430 ), reconstructed in 1880 , with further extensions completed in 1966...

Gloucester, diocese of

Gloucester, diocese of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
64 words

...diocese of The see, conterminous with Gloucestershire, was founded in 1541 by Henry VIII from part of the Worcester diocese. The Norman cathedral, previously St Peter's Benedictine abbey church, was partly transformed in Perpendicular style, reputedly the earliest example, by the inflow of money from pilgrims to the shrine of Edward II. The 14th‐cent. fan‐vaulted cloisters are among the finest in...

Worcester, diocese of

Worcester, diocese of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
81 words

...and half Warwickshire. The Worcester diocese was reduced in size by the creation of the see of Gloucester in 1541 and Birmingham in 1905 . The cathedral, though Norman in plan with Norman crypt and chapter house, was mostly refashioned in the 19th cent. with a Perpendicular...

Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, diocese of

Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, diocese of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
68 words

...roughly conterminous with Suffolk, was created in 1914 out of the Norwich diocese. Suffolk then had its own see for the first time since the Dunwich bishopric collapsed under the weight of the Danish invasions. The cathedral at Bury St Edmunds is the former 15th‐cent. Perpendicular parish church adjoining the tower of the ruined former Norman...

Winchester, diocese of

Winchester, diocese of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
199 words

...from Egbert 's reign onwards increased the see's importance, and in the 11th cent. Winchester became the national capital. The present cathedral, the longest in Europe (556 feet), begun in 1079 under Walkelin ( 1070–98 ), is still basically Norman with Early English and Perpendicular additions. The cathedral contains the remains of the Saxon kings and a shrine of St...

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