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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Atlantic, battle of the

Atlantic, battle of the   Reference library

Marc Milner

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,598 words
Illustration(s):
3

...routes converged, targets and good firing positions were difficult for individual submariners to obtain. Dönitz developed a system to solve both the search and the attack problems on the high seas. The search problem was resolved by establishing patrol lines of U-boats perpendicular to the convoy route, controlled by a shore-based plot through high-frequency radio communications . Acting like a huge drift net and manoeuvred on the basis of intelligence, these ‘wolf-packs’ covered a wide area of open ocean. Once in contact with a convoy, shadowers from...

crossing the T

crossing the T   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...the T a maneuver in naval tactics in which, with both opposing fleets in column, one fleet succeeds in passing in front of the enemy column and perpendicular to it. In the age of sail and naval gunnery, “crossing the T” gave a decided advantage to the fleet achieving that maneuver in that it was thus able to bring to bear all its guns on the side toward the enemy whereas the enemy ships, being in column, could bring to bear few of their guns, the majority being masked by the friendly ships sailing before them in the...

Nancy, Battle of

Nancy, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...fight. His army, however, decimated by cold and desertion, by then was probably no larger than two thousand men. Despite this disadvantage, on the morning of 5 January he left his camp, headed southeast, and arrayed his troops in formation along the Jarville stream, which ran perpendicular to the road leading from Nancy to Saint-Nicolas-de-Port. Blocking a narrow passage, the Burgundian line was composed of three corps: the left flank, against the Meurthe; the main division in the center, commanded by the Duke of Burgundy himself; and the right flank, against...

order, tactical

order, tactical   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...or the other preferred to recall an appointment elsewhere. As a unit attacking in line was highly vulnerable to cavalry attack and difficult to move across country, a ‘column’ would be used to cover intermediate ground. The column consisted of a unit deployed in deep lines perpendicular rather than parallel to the enemy's front. This way, a battalion of 700 men would face the enemy with a front of only about 27 yards (25 metres), but would have a depth of about 164 yards (150 metres). This formation was, however, more vulnerable to artillery and unless...

Horsemanship

Horsemanship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...horse to spring from the hindquarters with a thrust of energy known as impulsion. This energy then flows along the back muscles and rounds or arches the neck to result in flexion at the poll, the point just behind the horse’s ears, with the front of the horse’s face roughly perpendicular to the ground as in the horses of the Bayeux Tapestry. Collection enables the horse to perform correct lead changes and 180-degree turns. At a canter, the foreleg that extends ahead of the other is called the leading leg. In order to canter on the right lead, the horse will...

Nautical Astronomy and Celestial Navigation

Nautical Astronomy and Celestial Navigation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
12,412 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Wherever the observer stands, the ground is a plane perpendicular to the observer’s body, a plane that extends outward infinitely. The “poles” of the observer are the zenith, the point on the celestial sphere directly overhead, and the nadir, the point directly below the observer, also in a line perpendicular to the horizon plane. A celestial sphere may feature a number of vertical circles. The great circle intersecting the poles and passing through the observer’s zenith is the principal vertical. Perpendicular to the principal vertical, and passing through east...

Maritime Boundaries

Maritime Boundaries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,256 words

...In the case of states with opposite coasts the median line (also referred to as the equidistance line) was often employed, but it was adjusted to discount certain minor geographical features such as small islands. Where adjacent states were involved, most boundaries were a perpendicular to the general direction of the coast. In the case of adjacent states the equidistance method was rarely used. The delimitation of the territorial sea in straits was considered at the League of Nations Codification Conference of 1930 . It was proposed that the territorial...

Inertial Navigation

Inertial Navigation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
9,234 words
Illustration(s):
2

...if a spinning wheel is freely suspended, its spin axis will maintain its orientation in inertial space (even in the presence of linear accelerations or gravitational forces), unless a torque is applied about an axis perpendicular to the spin axis. Second, if such a torque is applied, the spin axis will rotate (precess) about an axis perpendicular to that of the applied torque—the rate of precession being proportional to the torque and to the wheel’s angular momentum. The single-axis rate gyro, one of the simplest forms of spinning-wheel gyro, was used in the...

Atlantic, Battle of the

Atlantic, Battle of the   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,777 words

...were dispersed. It was understood that submarines could operate in the broad ocean, but finding and attacking escorted convoys there would be difficult. However, Dönitz developed a solution to the problems of both search and attack on the high seas. Patrol lines of U-boats perpendicular to the convoy route, controlled by a shore-based plot through high-frequency radio communications, resolved the search problem. The “wolf pack” was then directed onto the target by headquarters, while the “shadower” transmitted a medium-frequency homing signal to help. The...

Naval Architecture

Naval Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
7,131 words

...main frame and the tail frame. A half circle was drawn with a radius equal to the extent to which the tail frame was narrower at the base than the main frame. A perpendicular raised in the middle divided the half circle into two quarters, each of which was each divided by the number of station frames required. By connecting the dividing points of the two quadrants with horizontal lines, the perpendicular was divided into the desired fractions, which were then transferred to the plan. By the sixteenth century the Venetian shipwrights applied four modifications of...

Vikings

Vikings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
7,952 words
Illustration(s):
4

...used the sun and the stars to orient themselves on the long voyages across the windy and unstable ocean. It is easiest to do parallel sailing by letting the polestar show the direction of true north and letting its altitude show the latitude. The pilot can then keep a heading perpendicular to the polestar and make long-term checks by observing its height above the horizon. Like other celestial methods, this all presupposes that the sky is clear, a condition that is unfortunately not very frequent in the high seas of the North Atlantic. Also, since the polestar...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
10,134 words

...The tribunal decided to employ the method of drawing a line perpendicular to the general direction to the coast rather than drawing a median line equidistant from the nearest points on the respective coasts (the method most often used today). The decision is best known for the dictum that a state of affairs of long standing should be changed as little as possible. This dictum was applied so as to avoid dividing a fishing bank used by Swedish vessels by slightly adjusting the perpendicular, in much the same way that modern tribunals adjust initial...

Coast Defense

Coast Defense   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,330 words

...Engineers in 1802 and were, in the majority of cases, successful in resisting British attacks on these defended harbors in the War of 1812 . From 1817 , the Third System witnessed the full embodiment of the principles of the French engineer Marc René Montalembert in his “perpendicular fortification” first proposed in 1776 , mounting a greater number of guns in casemates for additional protection. These guns could, by sheer weight of fire, overwhelm an attacking warship. Among these massive, multitiered polygonal works built as part of a systematic...

Navigational Instruments

Navigational Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
30,532 words
Illustration(s):
5

...that the tangent screw is still simply a slow-motion device with readout by vernier scale. Mirrors were made of optical glass with the two sides ground and polished flat and parallel to avoid parallax errors. Mirrors were mounted in brass housings that could be adjusted to be perpendicular to the frame and parallel to each other. Four shades could be used singly or together to reduce light intensity from the index mirror (three different neutral densities to block sunlight, and a colored moon filter), and three could be used for the horizon glass (two neutral...

rake

rake 2   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...2 v. 1 (of a ship's mast or funnel) incline from the perpendicular toward the stern. 2 (of a ship's bow or stern) project at its upper part beyond the...

pitch

pitch   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...n. a swaying or oscillation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of motion. v. 1 (of a moving ship, aircraft, or vehicle) rock or oscillate around a lateral axis, so that the front and back move up and down : the little steamer pressed on, pitching gently. 2 (of a vehicle) move with a vigorous jogging motion : a jeep came pitching down the hill. pitch in join in a fight or dispute. pitch into forcefully...

beam

beam   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...n. 1 the direction of an object visible from the port or starboard side of a ship when it is perpendicular to the center line of the vessel : there was land in sight on the port beam . 2 a ship's breadth at its widest point : a cutter with a beam of 16 feet. 3 the shank of an anchor. 4 a series of radio or radar signals emitted to serve as a navigational guide for ships or aircraft. v. 1 transmit (a radio signal or broadcast) in a specified direction: beaming a distress signal into space. on her or its beam-ends (of a ship) heeled over on its...

Anzac Legend

Anzac Legend   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...hardly have been better designed to appeal to an Australian audience. It was a thrilling description, full of stirring phrases which told Australians that their men had performed just as they expected: ‘Not waiting for orders, … they sprang into the sea’; ‘facing an almost perpendicular cliff … those colonials, practical above all else, went about it in a practical way’; ‘this race of athletes proceeded to scale the cliffs without responding to the enemy's fire’. Afterwards, the wounded Australians ‘were happy because they knew that they had been tried for...

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