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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Peterborough Cathedral. Perpendicular grew from the same roots as the Decorated style , with which it shared the love of the minuscule, with tight moulded bases, bundles of diminutive mouldings, and complex pattern-making. Unlike the Decorated style, Perpendicular required uniformity, the predominant use of straight lines and avoidance of obvious curves, especially the ogee. Some Perpendicular characteristics are adumbrated in Decorated buildings: the Lady Chapel ( 1321–49 ) at Ely Cathedral, for example, has a proto-Perpendicular grid system inherent in...

Reginald of Ely

Reginald of Ely (fl 1438)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...vaults springing without capitals, tightly packed wedge-shaped responds rising from glacis bases, Flamboyant tracery, and staggered and syncopated clusters of miniature moulded bases. Other motifs are purely English: bold jamb mouldings, Perpendicular tracery, and lierne vaults. Reginald combined classic Perpendicular forms with the new fashion for the ‘fantastic’, a trend condemned by Henry VI . He may have designed the Old Court at King’s College and Burwell Church (Cambs). See also Cambridge , 2(i) . Bibliography Harvey R. Willis : The Architectural...

Ramsey, William

Ramsey, William (1349)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... see London , IV, 3(i)(c) ). From 1332 he designed the cloister (destr. 1666 ) of Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London, a two-storey building with an inset octagonal chapter house, fitted into a small space on the south side of the nave. The design, which adumbrated the Perpendicular style, incorporated details of French Rayonnant mouldings (possibly seen by Ramsey at Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral) and strong vertical lines similar to those used in the tracery on the exterior of St Stephen’s. A close copy of the St Paul’s cloister design (enlarged...

Windsor Castle and chapel

Windsor Castle and chapel   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
106 words

...its building in *stone by *William ‘the Conqueror’ . It was expanded and rebuilt c .1344–63 by *Edward III , including a *chapel of St George for his knights of the *Garter . The chapel was magnificently rebuilt by *Edward IV and *Henry VII ( 1473–1507 ) in Perpendicular style. See also art and architecture: gothic . Daniel Williman B. J. W. Hill , Windsor Castle (1972). R. South , The Book of Windsor (1977). N. Williams , Royal Homes ...

Bristol

Bristol   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
166 words

...A merchant city, Bristol had no Bishop in the Middle Ages ; but the abbey church of St Augustine ( Augustinian Canons) became a superb cathedral in 1542 , and the parish church of St Mary Redcliffe, built thanks to the Canynges family, is one of the jewels of perpendicular Gothic . M. M. Postan , Medieval Trade and Finance , London, 1973. M. Spallanzani (ed.), Produzione, commercio e consumo dei panni di lana (nei secoli XII-XVIII) , Florence, 1976. Jean-Philippe...

art and architecture: Gothic

art and architecture: Gothic   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words

...and England developed further innovations in architectural design, generating the second international style around 1400 as well as later Gothic styles such as the ‘flamboyant’ and the ‘perpendicular’. 1. Early to High Gothic and Early English ( c .1130– c .1240) 2. Rayonnant Gothic and Decorated Style ( c .1240– c .1350) 3. Late Gothic: flamboyant and perpendicular ( c .1350– c .1500) 1. Early to High Gothic and Early English The first strides toward a Gothic-style architecture were achieved almost simultaneously in England and France via a development...

bastide

bastide   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
505 words

...the product of concerted town-planning. Dwellings and lands were squared off so as to facilitate fiscal exactions ( i.e. at Solomiac, each plot of 14 spans by 5 had to pay a Rent of 5 denarii ). The blocks of houses, square or rectangular, cut through by a network of perpendicular streets, were organised around the central square reserved for the Market and surrounded with arcaded houses. Secondly, a bastide or bastille could designate a fortified building at the entrance to a town. Finally, in the 13th c., in Provence , the bastide was a...

Gloucester

Gloucester   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
562 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(with a revenue of 1430 pounds a year in 1536 ), it possessed one of the finest abbey churches. In essence it was a Romanesque church, whose nave was finished in c. 1160 ; but the choir was enlarged in the 14th c., then the façade, the central tower and especially a great perpendicular-style cloister were added in the 15th century. The chronicler Robert of Gloucester, author of a chronicle relating English History from Brutus to 1270 , of which a dozen manuscripts survive, was probably a monk here at the end of the 13th century. Another chronicle,...

portulan

portulan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
525 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Sea and the Atlantic coasts from Morocco to the Baltic, provided with a scale and a system of 32 directions traditionally called “rhumbs”, and respecting a certain number of conventions as to the drawing of coasts, colours and toponymy. The writing of the names of ports perpendicularly to the coast led to the modern terminological confusion. The first known portulan, the Compasso de navegare , dates from before 1296 , and the Carta pisana from the late 13th century. In all, more than a hundred exemplars of charts exist, either isolated or forming...

Gothic art

Gothic art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,451 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1185 ) or Lincoln ( c. 1192 ). The inventiveness of artists was deployed in spectacular systems of vaulting (transept crossing at Ely) which led in the mid 14th c. to the style called “curvilinear”, whose effects of curves and counter-curves were later contradicted by the perpendicular style, which allowed the opening up of immense bays (Gloucester). One of the first buildings of German Gothic was Magdeburg cathedral ( 1209 ). Opus francigenum penetrated local traditions, asserted itself in the nave of Strasbourg ( 1240 ), and found new formulations at...

architects, architecture

architects, architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words

...into four periods: Early Gothic ( 1130–90 ), Lancet Gothic ( 1190–1240 ), Rayonnant Gothic ( 1240–1350 ), and Late or Flamboyant Gothic ( 1350–1520 ). Gothic architecture in England is divided into three styles: Early English ( 1200–1275 ), Decorated ( 1300–1375 ), and Perpendicular ( 1400–1575 ). The complexity of structures in Romanesque and Gothic architecture required precise division in craftsmanship. The *masons were trained as stone and brick masons, while other specialists included carpenters, *glass specialists, and master carvers who were...

Avignon

Avignon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Within the town itself, but especially outside the original wall, then in ruins, were created building plots called bourgs or bourguets on lands belonging to Avignonese nobles , who sold out of necessity, or townspeople who made fruitful land deals: along new streets perpendicular to the main roads , the land was cut up into longitudinal parcels conceded on a long lease and on condition of building within a certain time. This development took place in virtually total anarchy, at the mercy of supply and demand, uncontrolled by the papacy which was not...

Loculus

Loculus   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
120 words

...were usually no larger than the space needed to set one body parallel to the wall; on occasion, however, loculi were intended to house more than one burial. In the catacombs and tombs of the eastern Mediterranean, and often in the Jewish catacombs, loculi were set perpendicular rather than parallel to the wall. After the burial of the body, the loculus was covered with a marble or terra-cotta plaque, usually bearing a prayer and an identifying inscription, and sealed with cement. P. Testini , Le catacombe e gli antichi cimiteri cristiani in Roma ...

tracery

tracery   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
111 words

...such as circles and lobes. Later the patterns become increasingly complex (‘decorated’, c .1280–1320 ), and finally get interconnected by flowing, ogee-shaped curves (‘curvilinear’ or flamboyant , c .1320–80 ). Later English designs additionally emphasize the verticals (‘perpendicular’, c .1350–1560 ). See also art and architecture: gothic . Marc Carel Schurr P. Frankl , Gothic Architecture , ed. and rev. P. Crossley ...

Decorated style

Decorated style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,446 words
Illustration(s):
2

...a ‘Court’ school, independent of the Decorated style, which was inspired by French Rayonnant ( see Rayonnant style ) designs and led directly to the development of the Perpendicular style. Decorated, on the other hand, was seen as an English style that occurred only in the provinces. In the ensuing argument, which lasted for a generation and was concerned with the origins of the Perpendicular style, Decorated, regarded as a stylistic dead end, was pushed to the margins, and ‘Court’ art continued to be opposed to ‘provincial’ art. It was not until 1979 that...

Thomas of Canterbury

Thomas of Canterbury (fl 1323–35)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...found on the exterior of St Stephen’s were applied to the walls to mask the Romanesque galleries. Elements of French Rayonnant design, notably graduated tracery systems, were combined with the typically Kentish tracery in the south window to produce the earliest work in the Perpendicular style. Bibliography Harvey H. M. Colvin , ed.: The Middle Ages (1963), i and ii of The History of the King’s Works (London, 1963–82) Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England, 1200–1400 (exh. cat., ed. J. Alexander and P. Binski ; London, RA, 1987), no. 497 C....

Janyns

Janyns   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...requiring extremely shallow vaulting—as had been planned for Eton College Chapel. The five-sided apses that closed the narrow transepts were borrowed from the bay windows of secular architecture. Janyns’s complex interior elevations represent the culmination of 15th-century Perpendicular design. He vaulted the choir aisles with fans, filling the central spandrels with quatrefoils enclosed within octagons. By 1484 , the last year Janyns’s name appears, the eastern end was virtually complete, except for the main vault of the choir. (3) Robert Janyns (ii) (...

Yevele

Yevele (1320–30)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...modern sense, with responsibility for design, erection, and maintenance of all Crown works, such as Queenborough Castle ( 1361–7 ; destr. 1650 ; see also Plantagenet , (4) ) and Rochester Castle (repaired 1367–8 ). Stylistic evidence, including characteristically Perpendicular mouldings, indicates that he was responsible for the Black Prince’s chantry (from 1363 ) in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral. In 1371 he contracted to build the first cell and the cloister of the London Charterhouse. The Neville screen ( 1372–6 ) in Durham Cathedral has...

Flamboyant Gothic

Flamboyant Gothic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
369 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Gothic When, early in the 19th c., A. de Caumont classified medieval architecture dividing it into different chronological phases, he called the period covering the 15th and early 16th cc. “tertiary Gothic”, giving as synonyms “perpendicular style”, “prismatic style” or “flamboyant Gothic”. This last expression, borrowed from the amateur A. Le Prévost, was unanimously retained by his successors. At present, it is admitted that the last phase of the Gothic style appeared in France early in the reign of Charles VI . But these first experiments...

Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines

Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...ellipses, as well as the diversity of detail that distinguishes each Apostle and the way in which the architectural elements seemingly dictate human form. The compactness of the design is accentuated by the superficial carving technique. The outlines of the figures are cut perpendicular to the surface plane in shallow relief and details of drapery and physical features appear to be engraved in the stone. Both the style and carving technique of the lintel probably derive from northern Spain: the disposition of the figures imitates that of painted wooden...

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