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Overview

Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

narthex

narthex   Reference library

Jonathan Bardill

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...A narrow passage at ground level running perpendicular to the nave and aisles of a church, providing access to each through doors . A double narthex consists of an esonarthex (inner narthex) and an exonarthex (outer narthex). An exonarthex may serve as the rear portico of an atrium, the courtyard preceding a church. Jonathan...

Jerusalem, Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock

Jerusalem, Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock   Reference library

Marcus Milwright

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...More conclusive physical evidence comes from the reigns of the Umayyad (r. 661–750 ) caliphs ‘Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705 ) and al-Walid I (r. 705–15 ). The Aqsa Mosque was transformed into a large enclosed prayer hall, probably comprising fifteen aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla (south) wall. The central aisle was wider and led to a monumental dome at the crossing with a transept running parallel to the qibla wall. The building underwent further changes during the Abbasid (r. 750–1258 ) and Fatimid (r. 909–1171 ) dynasties....

῾Ein-Fara

῾Ein-Fara   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...natural crevice-like appearance of their mouths was not touched, thus concealing the existence of a large chamber hollowed out of the rock beyond. On the basis of size and shape the caves were classified into several types: small cells (6–10 square meters in area) cut in the perpendicular bank or high in the inner wall of a large, natural cave; cells in several levels along a narrow natural crevice; and caves with a large inner chamber. Storage cells were cut in the walls of some caves, and some caves had built-in cisterns. A peculiar feature, common to some...

Elephantine Texts

Elephantine Texts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Twenty-eight belong to Elephantine ( TAD A3.1–10, 4.1–10, 5.2, 5.5, 6.1–2) or Syene ( TAD A2.1–4), written in the fifth century bce . Unlike contracts, letters were usually written on both sides of the papyrus (except TAD A3.4, 3.9, 4.4, 5.2), beginning on the side perpendicular to the fibers. The bottoms were then turned up and the letters were concluded on the side parallel to the fibers. Occasionally, the piece was turned sideways ( TAD A3.9). There were two standard sheet widths: scroll height approximately 32 centimeters ( TAD A3.4–10, 4.2–4,...

Ghweir, Wadi

Ghweir, Wadi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to a depth of about 2 meters (7 feet). A large stone juts out on the southern end of the tomb, where the skeleton head is to be found. The skeleton was placed in a niche at the bottom of the grave, but along the east wall. The niche was covered by slanting stone slabs set perpendicular to the niche. Sherds of bowls or jars were placed over the covering stones. An almost completely restorable jar found in tomb 18 bears a Hebrew inscription of which only the name Yehoḥanan , written in black ink on the shoulder near its handle, was decipherable. The remains...

Contracts

Contracts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in narrow horizontal strips from the top down to the end of the upper copy, tied with string looped and knotted at several points, and in at least one case (deed of sale Mur 29) sealed. Witnesses affixed their signatures on the back of the sheet, one next to each of the ties, perpendicular to the direction of the writing of the text on the front. The bottom copy would be similarly folded in horizontal strips from the bottom up, but neither tied nor sealed. The two copies are known, therefore, as the inner and outer (in 5/6Ḥev 12.3: en tois exoterois ) copies,...

Constantinople, topography and secular buildings of

Constantinople, topography and secular buildings of   Reference library

James Crow

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...marked by the column of Marcian. They were to be the focus for imperial and religious processions throughout the city’s life. These axes present an urban layout which conforms to an eastern Roman pattern, known from cities such as Apamea and Palmyra . One cross street perpendicular to the Mese can be documented from within the Covered Bazaar, the Portico of Domninus (Uzun Çarşı); others are more difficult to identify, but commentators have suggested that there is evidence for systematic orthogonal planning in parts of the Late Roman city. Almost nothing...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...The scribes of all the above documents, foremost of the biblical scrolls, follow rabbinic instructions for writing holy books. Most letters measure 0.3 by 0.3 centimeters and hang from horizontal dry rulings, as is the custom in ancient Hebrew manuscripts. In some cases, a perpendicular line of dots guides the scribe in the marking of the dry rulings, and where these are missing, the letter tops form a straight line. Larger letters like lamed, qof , and the final forms of kaf, nun, pe , and tsadi are 0.6 centimeters high, protruding above the heads or...

Bronze

Bronze   Reference library

Peter Lacovara

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...which was dated to the Second Intermediate Period. There, copper was the principal metal in use. An even larger and more elaborate foundry was discovered at the Ramessid capital of Qantir in the Nile Delta. Similar in style to the Kerma furnace, a long trench was flanked by perpendicular channels for tuyeres (a nozzle through which air is delivered). Associated with that find were crucibles, molds, tuyeres, and finished pieces, particularly trappings for horses. Both furnaces were largely for casting, rather than smelting, as most copper was imported in ingot...

Abu Rowash

Abu Rowash   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of already cut-and-dressed granite and limestone. Quarrying of the site materials, which occurred until the nineteenth century, left a smashed and open pyramid base. Its interior shows elements arranged in the form of a T, including a north–south descending ramp and, perpendicular to it, a shaft, which should contain the royal tomb. According to the first results, the size of the pyramid was nearly the same as that of Menkaure : 106.20 meters (315 feet) on each side, with an estimated height of about 65.50 meters (200 feet), and the angle of slope...

Bricks and Brick Architecture

Bricks and Brick Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...used and additional materials, such as timber and straw—either loose or in the form of matting—were incorporated into the walls. In Nubia, the massive mud-brick fortifications incorporated layers of reeds and timbers in the wall for added cohesion. Open ventilator shafts ran perpendicular to the wall face, to allow for the even drying of walls. An innovation in construction occurred in the walls surrounding some temple complexes of the Late period, such as the enclosure wall at Karnak temple, the Kom es-Sultan at Abydos, and the walls of Elkab. All have bricks...

Sphinx

Sphinx   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...leading to the south side of the Great Pyramid. This ramp is situated south of the Great Pyramid and north of the causeway of Khafre in a depression which was once part of Khufu's quarries. The extension of Khufu's quarries is the reason that Khafre's causeway does not run perpendicular to the east side of the pyramid, and also the reason that his valley temple is not situated in the axis of the pyramid complex but displaced to the south. This means that Khafre had to take account of some earlier, very important structure that already stood there. This can...

Time

Time   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the time of Amenhotpe I ), or one in which a rod marked with units was immersed in the liquid to indicate the hour. Probably much older was the “shadow-clock,” a simple device in which the shadow cast by a vertical element moved along a scale of hours on a horizontal piece perpendicular to its base. Physicians used a crude temporal device—the pace of the pulse—as one index of a patient's health. Navigating Time The Egyptian sense of time in daily economic, social, and administrative life was without question linear. The performance of assignments, work, or...

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