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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Perpendicular architecture

Perpendicular architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
449 words

...dates from the Perpendicular period, but many 14th- and 15th-cent. parish churches, especially in wool-rich East Anglia, exemplify the richness of this architecture; so too do the royal chapels of St George, Windsor ( 1475–1528 ), and of Henry VII , Westminster abbey (begun 1503 ), and, on a smaller scale, the numerous late Gothic chantries and tombs often inserted into earlier ecclesiastical buildings. The Divinity School, Oxford ( 1424–83 ), with its remarkable pendant-vaulted roof, is another excellent example. Quintessentially Perpendicular is King’s...

Perpendicular architecture

Perpendicular architecture   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
78 words

... architecture The last of the Gothic styles of the Middle Ages and the only one to be peculiarly English. The east window of Gloucester Cathedral is an early example, pre‐dating the Black Death . The style remained popular for another 200 years, until the Reformation . It is distinguished by the straight mullions of the windows, by ranges of clerestory windows surmounted by battlements and pinnacles, and by splendid towers. See J. H. Harvey , The Perpendicular Style, 1330–1485 ...

perpendicular style

perpendicular style   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
71 words

... style [De] A style of architecture found in Britain in the late 14th century ad through to the 16th century ad in which there is a strong emphasis on the vertical elements of construction and decoration. Pointed arches common in earlier centuries are flattened and arches and windows become framed by rectangular outlines. Towers of great height are added to ecclesiastical buildings and ceilings and roofs are often richly...

Perpendicular architecture

Perpendicular architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
45 words

... architecture . The last of the Gothic styles of the Middle Ages and the only one to be peculiarly English. The style is distinguished by the straight mullions of the windows, by ranges of clerestorey windows surmounted by battlements and pinnacles, and by splendid towers...

Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Peterborough Cathedral. Perpendicular grew from the same roots as the Decorated style , with which it shared the love of the minuscule, with tight moulded bases, bundles of diminutive mouldings, and complex pattern-making. Unlike the Decorated style, Perpendicular required uniformity, the predominant use of straight lines and avoidance of obvious curves, especially the ogee. Some Perpendicular characteristics are adumbrated in Decorated buildings: the Lady Chapel ( 1321–49 ) at Ely Cathedral, for example, has a proto-Perpendicular grid system inherent in...

Atlantic, battle of the

Atlantic, battle of the   Reference library

Marc Milner

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,598 words
Illustration(s):
3

...routes converged, targets and good firing positions were difficult for individual submariners to obtain. Dönitz developed a system to solve both the search and the attack problems on the high seas. The search problem was resolved by establishing patrol lines of U-boats perpendicular to the convoy route, controlled by a shore-based plot through high-frequency radio communications . Acting like a huge drift net and manoeuvred on the basis of intelligence, these ‘wolf-packs’ covered a wide area of open ocean. Once in contact with a convoy, shadowers from...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...years of the 14th century until the Reformation and later a native style known as Perpendicular Gothic was developed. This is named after the perpendicular lines of the mullions in the windows (which were enlarged until they filled all the available space in the walls), but the style includes much more than that, e.g. flat lead roofs hidden behind battlements and pinnacles, long ranges of clerestory windows, and carved wooden roofs. See John Harvey , The Perpendicular Style, 1330–1485 (1978). In Ireland, Scotland, and Wales there are far fewer...

crossing the T

crossing the T   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...the T a maneuver in naval tactics in which, with both opposing fleets in column, one fleet succeeds in passing in front of the enemy column and perpendicular to it. In the age of sail and naval gunnery, “crossing the T” gave a decided advantage to the fleet achieving that maneuver in that it was thus able to bring to bear all its guns on the side toward the enemy whereas the enemy ships, being in column, could bring to bear few of their guns, the majority being masked by the friendly ships sailing before them in the...

Nancy, Battle of

Nancy, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...fight. His army, however, decimated by cold and desertion, by then was probably no larger than two thousand men. Despite this disadvantage, on the morning of 5 January he left his camp, headed southeast, and arrayed his troops in formation along the Jarville stream, which ran perpendicular to the road leading from Nancy to Saint-Nicolas-de-Port. Blocking a narrow passage, the Burgundian line was composed of three corps: the left flank, against the Meurthe; the main division in the center, commanded by the Duke of Burgundy himself; and the right flank, against...

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)   Reference library

Ronald G. KNAPP

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... siheyuan , the main hall, called a zhengtang , is a low, south-facing, single-story building on the northern side of the courtyard. Within this building the senior generation resides, with space for entertaining guests and family. Bedrooms and studies are also found here. Perpendicular to the main structure is a pair of flanking buildings, one facing east and the other west, normally used to house married sons and their families. An important element of Beijing siheyuan is the set of narrow covered verandas that serve as all-weather passageways around the...

order, tactical

order, tactical   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...or the other preferred to recall an appointment elsewhere. As a unit attacking in line was highly vulnerable to cavalry attack and difficult to move across country, a ‘column’ would be used to cover intermediate ground. The column consisted of a unit deployed in deep lines perpendicular rather than parallel to the enemy's front. This way, a battalion of 700 men would face the enemy with a front of only about 27 yards (25 metres), but would have a depth of about 164 yards (150 metres). This formation was, however, more vulnerable to artillery and unless...

Horsemanship

Horsemanship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...horse to spring from the hindquarters with a thrust of energy known as impulsion. This energy then flows along the back muscles and rounds or arches the neck to result in flexion at the poll, the point just behind the horse’s ears, with the front of the horse’s face roughly perpendicular to the ground as in the horses of the Bayeux Tapestry. Collection enables the horse to perform correct lead changes and 180-degree turns. At a canter, the foreleg that extends ahead of the other is called the leading leg. In order to canter on the right lead, the horse will...

Shang Dynasty

Shang Dynasty (1766 bce–1045 bce)   Reference library

Dallas L. McCURLEY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...tributes from surrounding polities, and many other things. The divinatory method was to apply a hot poker to hollows carved into the bones, causing roughly T-shaped cracks to appear on the opposite side. The king interpreted these according to the degree of angle between perpendicular and cross-bar, and uttered a prognostication based on the divination’s verdict. Following this, the day of the divination, the name of the diviner, the questions asked by the diviner, and the king’s final verdict were inscribed on the bone or plastron, which was stored away...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...sheet needs to be identified; the orientation of chain lines in bound, laid paper helps determine this ( see format ). In a sheet folded in half, the chain lines run parallel to the fold and book spine, producing a *folio . A second fold, perpendicular to the first, will produce chain lines running perpendicular to the spine, and thus a *quarto . A third fold restores the original orientation, producing an *octavo , and so on. Once a single sheet has been identified, any watermark and countermark can be noted, and their relative positions in the sheet...

narthex

narthex   Reference library

Jonathan Bardill

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...A narrow passage at ground level running perpendicular to the nave and aisles of a church, providing access to each through doors . A double narthex consists of an esonarthex (inner narthex) and an exonarthex (outer narthex). An exonarthex may serve as the rear portico of an atrium, the courtyard preceding a church. Jonathan...

Cambridge, Great St Mary’s

Cambridge, Great St Mary’s   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
86 words

...Great St Mary’s . Commonly called the university church, this is a fine very late perpendicular parish church on a splendid site between King’s Parade and the Market Square. Rebuilding of the original church was begun in the late 15th cent. but was protracted. The west tower, started in 1491 , was only half-finished in 1550 , completed in 1608 , and the proposed spire was never added. Until the Senate House was built in 1730 , St Mary’s was used for the award of degrees. J. A....

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin   Reference library

A. S. Hargreaves

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
105 words

...the centre of the fledgling medieval university, St Mary’s was the seat of its government, academic disputation, and award of degrees until the mid-17th cent.; the attached Old Congregation House ( c. 1320 ) contained the first university library. Considerably rebuilt in the perpendicular style, it hosted the trials of the Oxford martyrs ( Latimer , Ridley , Cranmer ) in 1554–6 , gained the Laudian ‘Virgin porch’ whose Marian statue so incensed the puritans, heard Wesley and Newman preach, and saw the launch of the ‘Oxford’ or ‘tractarian’ movement for...

Bath abbey

Bath abbey   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
104 words

...abbey is a fine example of late Perpendicular building. Begun in 1499 by Bishop Oliver King , it replaced a larger Norman foundation. The architects, the Vertue brothers, were also responsible for Henry VII ’s chapel at Westminster: each has magnificent fan vaulting. The bishop is said to have been encouraged by a dream showing the ladder to heaven, and the scene is reproduced on the west front. The abbey was a Benedictine foundation and fell into neglect after the dissolution of the monasteries , but, being in the middle of the town, was taken over in...

Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, diocese of

Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
158 words

...the 11th cent. St Edmund’s abbey, founded by Cnut in memory of the East Anglian king martyred by the Danes ( 868 ), was from the first richly endowed and, with its 170 manors, ranked amongst the foremost in England. The cathedral at Bury St Edmunds is the former 15th-cent. Perpendicular parish church adjoining the tower of the ruined former Norman abbey. Transepts and central tower were added to the cathedral in the 20th cent.; further extensions were completed in 1990 . The bishop’s residence is at Ipswich. Suffolk is well known for its many magnificent...

Sheffield, diocese of

Sheffield, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
150 words

...Doncaster would have been a better centre), the see was successfully welded together by the first two bishops, Leonard Burrows ( 1914–39 ) and Leslie Hunter ( 1939–62 ), the latter being particularly noted for his devotion to social welfare. The cathedral is the former Perpendicular parish church ( c. 1430 ), reconstructed in 1880 , with further extensions completed in 1966 . Revd Dr William M....

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