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Overview

Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

narthex

narthex   Reference library

Jonathan Bardill

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...A narrow passage at ground level running perpendicular to the nave and aisles of a church, providing access to each through doors . A double narthex consists of an esonarthex (inner narthex) and an exonarthex (outer narthex). An exonarthex may serve as the rear portico of an atrium, the courtyard preceding a church. Jonathan...

Jerusalem, Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock

Jerusalem, Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock   Reference library

Marcus Milwright

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...More conclusive physical evidence comes from the reigns of the Umayyad (r. 661–750 ) caliphs ‘Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705 ) and al-Walid I (r. 705–15 ). The Aqsa Mosque was transformed into a large enclosed prayer hall, probably comprising fifteen aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla (south) wall. The central aisle was wider and led to a monumental dome at the crossing with a transept running parallel to the qibla wall. The building underwent further changes during the Abbasid (r. 750–1258 ) and Fatimid (r. 909–1171 ) dynasties....

Constantinople, topography and secular buildings of

Constantinople, topography and secular buildings of   Reference library

James Crow

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...marked by the column of Marcian. They were to be the focus for imperial and religious processions throughout the city’s life. These axes present an urban layout which conforms to an eastern Roman pattern, known from cities such as Apamea and Palmyra . One cross street perpendicular to the Mese can be documented from within the Covered Bazaar, the Portico of Domninus (Uzun Çarşı); others are more difficult to identify, but commentators have suggested that there is evidence for systematic orthogonal planning in parts of the Late Roman city. Almost nothing...

Time and Timekeeping, Roman

Time and Timekeeping, Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
890 words
Illustration(s):
1

...use likely spread to Rome from there via Greece. Vitruvius describes a variety of designs for both (9.7–8). Roman Sundial . Timgad, Algeria. © Gerard Degeorge/The Bridgeman Art Library A Roman sundial ( horologium or solarium ) consisted of a style, also known as a gnomon, perpendicular to a convex or flat field on which it cast its shadow; the field was marked so that the direction or length of the shadow indicated the daylight hours. Surviving portable Roman and Byzantine sundials are adjustable for month and latitude to give a close approximation of the...

Writing Materials

Writing Materials   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it is Greek and Roman Egypt that permits us to test these sources and to understand how and where these materials were used. The sands of Egypt have preserved many literary and documentary texts on various materials. Papyrus was manufactured by placing two layers of fibers perpendicularly one to the other (see the description in Pliny the Elder Natural History 13.69). People rarely tried to reuse papyrus by washing off previous text, but writing a different text on the back (usually called the “verso”) of a papyrus already used on front was very common....

Stoa

Stoa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,371 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bc ), were very large. The use of stoas to frame specific areas also developed at this time. Thus, at Olympia the large Echo Stoa ( c. 970×11.5 m), begun c. 350 bc but completed much later, defined the eastern edge of the Sanctuary of Zeus, with its axis almost perpendicular to those of the two main temples. This function is especially evident in Ionia , for example in the agoras at Priene and Miletos , which were begun in the 4th century bc but not completed until Hellenistic times. The Hellenistic period ( c. 323–27 bc ) was the great age...

Pompeii

Pompeii   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
11,282 words
Illustration(s):
9

...from as early as the 5th–3rd century bc . The present layout, with orthogonal streets in areas I, II, III, IV, V and IX, suggests that Samnite urban developments continued into the Roman period. The north-east-to-south-west layout of the main avenues ( decumani ) and the perpendicular lines followed by the transverse streets ( cardines ) gave Pompeii’s urban fabric its claim to nobility and distinguished it from provincial Roman towns with less sophisticated urban plans. Very little is known about the distribution of the quarters of the town ( vici ), the...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
9,762 words

...on a steep hillside, and its plan has an axial design that led the visitor from the town below to the sanctuary of the goddess at the top. At the bottom is a vast retaining wall, and the terraces above are supported in part by the hillside, in part by barrel vaults placed perpendicularly to the slope to support and extend the available horizontal area. Access is granted by means of two inclined, covered ramps leading to a landing with colonnaded porticoes and two semicircular alcoves (exedrae) placed symmetrically on either side of a central flight of steps....

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...can be seen in the Baths of Neptune at Ostia (early 2nd century ad ), or the baths at Glanum (Saint- Rémy de Provence; late 1st century bc ). In the Western provinces a variation on this plan developed, with the bathing rooms following an axial sequence but running perpendicular to the palaestra, sometimes with the addition of a number of circular rooms for various purposes. Examples of the former can be seen at Champlieu ( c. ad 200 ), and of the latter at Conimbriga in Portugal ( ad 1–14 , enlarged ad 105–15 ). Smaller baths, particularly...

quatrefoil

quatrefoil  

An ornamental design of four lobes or leaves as used in architectural tracery, resembling a flower or clover leaf.
flint

flint  

Variety of chert, which occurs commonly as nodules and bands in chalk. It is deposited in the porous, permeable structures of sponge, diatom, and echinoid skeletons and also in burrows.
glass

glass  

[Ma]An artificial material produced by fusing silica sand with an alkali such as potash or sodium. It was probably developed from faience in the Near East during the 3rd millennium bc, but was not ...

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