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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

perpendicular style

perpendicular style   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
71 words

... style [De] A style of architecture found in Britain in the late 14th century ad through to the 16th century ad in which there is a strong emphasis on the vertical elements of construction and decoration. Pointed arches common in earlier centuries are flattened and arches and windows become framed by rectangular outlines. Towers of great height are added to ecclesiastical buildings and ceilings and roofs are often richly...

Grid Plan

Grid Plan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
390 words

...site is by using a grid. The meaning of any archaeological information, such as an excavated object or architectural remain, is derived largely from its context, and a grid helps to identify that location and context. To form a grid, an arbitrary system of intersecting perpendicular lines is imposed on a site. The lines are usually established according to magnetic directions, running north–south and east–west. A mid-point for the grid is often set at the center of the excavation area. However, at complex urban sites or at sites with visible surface...

Balk

Balk   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
486 words
Illustration(s):
1

...walls, debris layers, pits, hard surfaces or floors, and various other artifacts. From Tel Miqne, field III, NE 11, east section, 1993. (Courtesy Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavation and Publication Project) Because lighting direction and angle play on the level and the plumb (or perpendicular) balk face, they are critical to the successful observation and accurate reading of a balk. Once it is drawn to scale and photographed under optimal lighting conditions, the balk face, or often an extended sequence of faces representing the side of a long trench or the...

Resistivity

Resistivity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
431 words

...applied voltage to the magnitude of the current. Ditches and pits with loose silts and soils generally show low resistivity readings, while structures and deposits with clay, brick, and stone will be relatively high. Testing is most successful when the linear transverse runs perpendicular to subsurface features—across ditches or stone or brick walls. Soil resistivity measurement has been used by geologists and civil engineers since World War I. However, the first major application to archaeological work was only made In 1946 , by R. J. C. Atkinson ( 1953 ),...

Mataria Boat

Mataria Boat   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
666 words

...technologies. The Mataria hull reflects Egyptian nautical traditions that incorporated a feature of Mediterranean shipbuilding found in boats dating from the Late Bronze Age to the Byzantine period but never seen in the older Egyptian hulls: the occasional use of pegs driven perpendicularly through tenons to lock mortise-and-tenon joints. Although this type of fastening is known as early as the Egyptian first dynasty ( c. 2920–2770 ) in the manufacture of furniture, coffins, and statues, the Mataria boat marks the first recorded use of pegged mortise-and-tenon...

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Iron II. Stratum II (tenth century bce ) contained a large, well-constructed, multiroomed building in field I that has been partially excavated ( see figure 1 ). The complex (at least 11 × 15 m) is oriented northeast-southwest, with two primary interior dividing walls perpendicular to each other. One interior wall carries a stone bench along its northern face. Both walls have well-hewn stones as door jambs. The complex has two building phases. The destruction debris found within the complex included a great deal of burned mud brick. In field II a series...

Hadar, Tel

Hadar, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
941 words
Illustration(s):
1

...leveled, and two large public buildings were constructed on two terraces. The first, a storehouse comprised of three long, narrow halls, was built parallel to the inner city wall on the upper terrace; the second, a tripartite pillared building with a unique granary, was built perpendicular to the wall, on the lower terrace. The storehouse had solid stone walls and beaten-earth floors. Portions of its halls were used for grinding flour and similar activities. A door led to the two wings of the second building. Some of the pillars in the building on the lower...

Ziggurat

Ziggurat   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
985 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; Larsa .] All these buildings have their corners oriented to the cardinal points and were generally located, together with a lower temple, within a courtyard with a separate forecourt. The shrine at the top was reached by means of staircases often with a triple stair—one perpendicular to the wall face and the other two running along the wall from the two corners—leading up to the first stage of the ziggurat and meeting at a gateway. Only at Ur is the second stage sufficiently preserved for it to be clear that only a single stair provided access to its top....

Burial Techniques

Burial Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
740 words

...proliferated during the Roman period ( 37 bce –323 ce ): the arcosolium, a broad, archshaped shelf carved along the wall of a cave, used for primary burial (e.g. the Tomb of the Kings in Jerusalem, and the tombs at Khirbet Shema῾), and the koḥ , a deep, narrow slot carved perpendicular to the cave wall for primary or secondary burial (e.g., the “Caiaphas” tomb in Jerusalem and the “Goliath” tomb in Jericho). In koḥîm caves in the Roman period, ossuaries or other repositories—pits, niches, and even separate chambers and charnel rooms—were frequently used...

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ASOR Archives) At the center of the settlement a large, four-room house (16 × 12 m) was preserved up to three courses of stone with outer walls as much as 1.4 m thick. Three long, connecting rooms were separated by two rows of stone pillars. An enclosed room was situated perpendicular to them along the south wall. The floors of the side rooms were made out of stone slabs; the rest were of bedrock or beaten earth. The only entrance was at the northern end of the long western wall, and a small room was attached to the house at its north-west corner ( see ...

Ubaid

Ubaid   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,246 words

...Tell al-῾Ubaid, the great oval enclosure wall (85 × 65 m) was probably doubled in the interior by a concentric, smaller enclosure (as at Khafajeh). A rectangular terrace 33 × 26 m was constructed in the center of the enclosure of unbaked plano-convex bricks on a stone socle. Perpendicular to its southeast facade, a staircase with several stone treads gave access to the summit of the terrace. In addition, a small lateral stair, also of stone, was arranged parallel to the southwest facade, which was later incorporated in an annex. The sanctuary itself, which has...

Ras Ibn Hani

Ras Ibn Hani   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,533 words

...four steps. The palace had been nearly deserted before it was destroyed by heavy fire, early in the twelfth century bce apparently by “Sea Peoples” whose precise nature is a debated question. On a part of the ruins that was leveled, small dwellings were built bordered by perpendicular streets. The painted pottery recovered, of types common on Cyprus and in Palestine in the twelfth century, are considered to be the last development of Mycenaean pottery, suggesting that this settlement was founded by the very sackers of the Ugaritic city. Destructions and...

Papyrus

Papyrus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,102 words

...(sometimes a bit of vegetal glue was added), and the layers were pressed and beaten to meld them. The papyrus was then stretched and smoothed to make it fit for use. To create a roll, the sheets thus produced were glued together with the horizontal fibers on the inside, perpendicular to the join. A text on a scroll was normally arranged in columns, so that the writing followed the horizontal lines of the fibers. Normally, writing was done on only one side of the papyrus, although exceptions are known. For practical purposes, the papyrus was limited to a...

Qitmit, Ḥorvat

Qitmit, Ḥorvat   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,103 words
Illustration(s):
2

...enclosed by a stone wall (hereafter referred to as the altar enclosure). The structure is rectangular and measures 10.5 × 5 m, with each room opening to the south for its entire width. Podiumlike wall segments, whose upper courses consist of large, flat stones, were erected perpendicular to the entrances in all three rooms. It is fairly clear, however, that these podiumlike elements served no structural function. Rather, they should be seen as elements of the room's furniture. They may have served as a table on which rituals were performed in the room's...

Writing Materials

Writing Materials   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

....] The chief, if not completely reliable, source for the preparation of the writing material is Pliny the Elder's Natural History (13.74–82). Fresh strips of pith were laid side by side on a flat surface, with their edges touching; more strips were laid on top of them, perpendicularly, again with their edges touching. They were then pressed together (and perhaps pounded with a mallet), and the plants' sap bonded them into a very smooth, white, flexible sheet that could be inscribed on both sides. Usually, the sheets were glued into rolls of twenty, with...

Anchors

Anchors   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,249 words
Illustration(s):
3

...about anchor arm construction with the discovery of a fragmentary anchor on the Chrétienne “C” wreck (Joncheray, 1975 ). Arms were bound fastened to anchor shanks with Z-shaped hook joints that were, in turn, secured by mortise-and-tenon joints (figure 3.5). Pegs placed perpendicularly through tenons in anchor arms locked them in position. When arm/shank joints loosened with wear, reinforcement collars (figure 3.4) poured onto anchors held the anchor arms in position (Haldane, 1986 ). Pliny records cork floats on lines used to mark an anchor's location on...

Analytical Techniques

Analytical Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,644 words

...is thus a typical method for species analysis. Many compounds exhibit typical infrared spectra that can be used as a “fingerprint.” Resonance raman spectroscopy ( RRS ) is a complementary technique to IRS in that the radiation scattered and partly reemitted in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident beam is measured. X-Ray Methods. When an element is irradiated with X-rays of appropriate wavelength, X-rays of different but smaller wavelength, characteristic of the element, are emitted. The underlying process is the displacement of an electron of...

Egyptian Aramaic Texts

Egyptian Aramaic Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
12,108 words

...was a distinctive mode of writing for each type of document. Letters and contracts were written in a single column on a roll held vertically, perpendicular to the fibers and parallel to the joins. Although a letter frequently continued on the verso, contracts rarely did (exceptions are TAD B1.1; 2.3; 3.3; 4.4). All other texts were written in columns on a roll held horizontally, parallel to the fibers and perpendicular to the joins. At the end of the fifth century a few contracts were also written this way ( TAD B4.6; 7.1–3). Letters. Letters may be...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...deep-relief terracotta plaques. The figures are naked but adorned with a wig or headcover and a disk (drum) is pressed against the chest with both hands (Rashid, 1984 , ills. 91–95); and as bell-shaped figures dressed in a long gown, beating the drum, which is in a position perpendicular to the body (Meyers, 1987 ). Preserved only in Israel/Palestine, there are more than forty items of the first type and some fifteen of the second extant. Mixed types appear on Cyprus and in Syria: pillar figurines with a disk pressed against the chest and figurines on votive...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,809 words
Illustration(s):
7

...sides of the summit. Eastern insulae. As early as the second century ce , the original settlement on the summit had spread to the east, on the adjacent plateau. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to these main thoroughfares created spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae, of buildings. The cardo (13.7 m wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original Roman pavers, with deep wheel ruts testifying to centuries of wagon...

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