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Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Perpendicular

Perpendicular   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
144 words

... The last of the English Gothic styles of architecture, it developed in the 14th century and survived until as late as the early 17th. It is characterized by straight verticals and horizontals, especially in tracery . There is overall emphasis on the panel motif, both in tracery and in blank-wall decoration. Arches are flat and vaulting complex (culminating in the English fan pattern). One of the most important early Perpendicular structures is the chancel of Gloucester Cathedral, while from the middle period of the style there are the ...

Perpendicular

Perpendicular   Reference library

Patrick Goode and Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
333 words

... The last style of English Gothic , flourishing from the middle of the 14th century, and characterized by the repetition of vertical traceried panels, large windows, wide light interiors, and vaults decorated with liernes and tiercerons . Nowhere better exemplifies the effectiveness of this essentially repetitive form than the choir of Gloucester Cathedral ( c .1337–57 ), whose Norman structure hides behind a grid of tall rectangles with foiled tracery that rise up to a new vault, webbed with liernes and tiercerons, punctuated by carved...

Perpendicular

Perpendicular   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
597 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Third and latest of the English Gothic architectural styles, also known as Third Pointed or Rectilinear , it followed from the previous Decorated or Second-Pointed style. Perp. first emerged in designs of c. 1332 for the chapter-house and cloisters of old St Paul’s Cathedral, London (destroyed), by William de Ramsey , and was further developed at Gloucester Cathedral, where the chancel ( c. 1337–57) displays many of its attributes. An English style, it has no Continental, Irish, or Scottish equivalent, and survived for more than three...

Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,123 words

...Unlike the Decorated style, Perpendicular required uniformity, the predominant use of straight lines and avoidance of obvious curves, especially the ogee. Some Perpendicular characteristics are adumbrated in Decorated buildings: the Lady Chapel (1321–49) at Ely Cathedral, for example, has a proto-Perpendicular grid system inherent in the tracery–dado arcade relationship, yet the profusion of sculpture, the plasticity of the wall and the kaleidoscopic colour tones remain essentially Decorated. Initially Perpendicular was restricted to London and...

Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Peterborough Cathedral. Perpendicular grew from the same roots as the Decorated style , with which it shared the love of the minuscule, with tight moulded bases, bundles of diminutive mouldings, and complex pattern-making. Unlike the Decorated style, Perpendicular required uniformity, the predominant use of straight lines and avoidance of obvious curves, especially the ogee. Some Perpendicular characteristics are adumbrated in Decorated buildings: the Lady Chapel ( 1321–49 ) at Ely Cathedral, for example, has a proto-Perpendicular grid system inherent in...

Perpendicular

Perpendicular  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large windows with ...
Hafod

Hafod   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the din of falling water reverberates through the cave, and makes us hesitate about committing ourselves to its damp and gloomy recesses. … on turning suddenly to the left, a rude aperture admits the light, and a sparkling sheet of water, in front of the aperture, urges its perpendicular fall from the rock above, into a deep hollow below the cave.’ Johnes died in 1816 and the estate subsequently changed hands more than once. By the end of the Second World War the gardens had started to decline. In 1994 the Hafod Trust was set up to restore them and in ...

Reginald of Ely

Reginald of Ely (fl 1438)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...vaults springing without capitals, tightly packed wedge-shaped responds rising from glacis bases, Flamboyant tracery, and staggered and syncopated clusters of miniature moulded bases. Other motifs are purely English: bold jamb mouldings, Perpendicular tracery, and lierne vaults. Reginald combined classic Perpendicular forms with the new fashion for the ‘fantastic’, a trend condemned by Henry VI . He may have designed the Old Court at King’s College and Burwell Church (Cambs). See also Cambridge , 2(i) . Bibliography Harvey R. Willis : The Architectural...

Ramsey, William

Ramsey, William (1349)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... see London , IV, 3(i)(c) ). From 1332 he designed the cloister (destr. 1666 ) of Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London, a two-storey building with an inset octagonal chapter house, fitted into a small space on the south side of the nave. The design, which adumbrated the Perpendicular style, incorporated details of French Rayonnant mouldings (possibly seen by Ramsey at Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral) and strong vertical lines similar to those used in the tracery on the exterior of St Stephen’s. A close copy of the St Paul’s cloister design (enlarged...

Dagan, Geula

Dagan, Geula (c.1925)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...water is conveyed by gentle or harsh tones. Returning to Israel, she found inspiration in the landscapes of the Negev and in minerals, entitling all her paintings Rhythms of Nature . She then turned to more figurative painting, superimposing childhood memories of Jerusalem, perpendicular lines of white houses, the Mosque of Omar (Dome of the Rock) rising above them, with dif erent views of today's expanding metropolis. Museum and Gallery Holdings Jerusalem Tel Aviv Auction Records Paris, 12 Oct 1986 : Ireland ( 1960 , oil on canvas, 32 × 46 ins/81 × 116 cm)...

Reinhardt, Ad

Reinhardt, Ad (1913)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,416 words
Illustration(s):
1

...relationships among lines and planes forming a dynamic “system.” The idealist and utopian construal of concrete form similarly holds true in Mondrian's scheme of things, for, having penetrated nature, abstraction has achieved the “expression of relationships” exclusively. Perpendicularity expresses the “one permanent relationship,” attaining, as it does, an equilibrium of spirit with matter, active with passive, male with female, truth with beauty. Reinhardt will assume the mantle of this aesthetic. By the late 1940s, he will have adapted a version of...

Color

Color   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,532 words

...developed by the painter Albert Munsell ( 1858–1918 ), and the Natural Color System (NCS), the Swedish standard. The former is defined by the samples in an atlas, and employs a hue circle of five equally spaced primaries—red, yellow, green, blue, and purple—surrounding a perpendicular achromatic axis. It uses as its dimensions Hue, Value, and Chroma, with perceptually equal spacing of the samples along each dimension. The Natural Color System proceeds on the assumption that we all carry around in our heads mental representations of the Hering primaries:...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,956 words
Illustration(s):
10

...front of the original grid with the viewing point, and then by connecting the points along the side of the grid, seen in elevation, with the viewing point. This became known as the “plan and elevation” method or costruzione legìttima . In the resulting projection, any lines perpendicular to the picture plane (the “orthogonals”) will converge on a single point (the “centric point,” later known as the “vanishing point”). The horizontal running through the vanishing point came to be called the “horizon.” Much of the rest of Alberti's treatise on painting...

Divriği

Divriği   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
550 words

...whom several remarkable buildings and fortifications were erected. The Kale (“citadel”) Mosque, constructed for the Mangujak sovereign Shahinshah ibn Sulayman ibn Amir Ishak by the builder Hasan ibn Piruz of Maragha in 1180–81 , is a simple structure of three aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall. The wider central aisle has a barrel vault, while the side aisles are each covered by four cupolas. A small kiosk once stood against the northwest corner of the building, but only its lower part remains. The masonry portal was once decorated with glazed...

Farrukh Chela

Farrukh Chela (fl. c.1580–c.1604)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
483 words

...deep landscape with rocky vistas, usually of boulders punctuated with hairy plants or shrubs; and in later stages a deep ink-blue strip as sky, other colors ranging from brick red to a pale mauve. He typically divided space in horizontal platform-like plateaux, sometimes with perpendicular drops and vertical, regular, panel-like shading. His human figures lacked vitality and were sometimes finished or touched up by such celebrated painters as Basawan, Manohar and Dhanraj. His animal figures on the other hand are quite animated, as in an illustration from an ...

Mahdia

Mahdia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
574 words

...there was a palace for al-Mahdi, another for his son and successor al-Qa῾im ( r. 934–46 ), and underground storehouses, wells and cisterns. The mosque ( 916 ) was the first mosque built by the Fatimids. It is largely modeled on the Great Mosque of Kairouan, with nine naves perpendicular to the qibla wall, double colonnades along the axial aisle and a T-plan formed by a wide axial aisle and the aisle along the qibla wall, but the Fatimids replaced the massive minaret of the prototype with a monumental projecting portal ( see Architecture , fig. 16). The...

Madinat al-Zahra

Madinat al-Zahra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,473 words
Illustration(s):
1

...al-jund ; (d), dwellings of palace officials (e) and service areas. The dār al-jund ( c. 958 ) has a transverse rectangular room with square chambers at either end that opens south on to a square court (f) surrounded by porticos. It opens north to a hall of five parallel perpendicular aisles separated by columns, piers and walls covered with plain stucco with molding. Large horseshoe arches between the triple-arch arcades on either side of the central aisle modify this basilican scheme to create a somewhat cruciform plan. A zigzag ramp on the east connected...

Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,387 words

...to articulate a clearer sense of what Gothic actually amounted to. The research of the antiquary Thomas Rickman ( 1776–1841 ) proved particularly important in this respect, not least by categorizing the development of medieval styles into Norman, Early-English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, and helping to distinguish between the Romanesque and the Gothic. This Gothic Revival was a genuinely pan-European movement, with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( 1749–1842 ) wanting to substitute the term ‘German’ for ‘Gothic’ and the French politician François-René de...

Tughra

Tughra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
996 words

...the letters nūn and sīn . Under the Ottomans the tughra was used only in documents sent from the capital to the provinces. High officials, who sometimes used a similarly shaped monogram of their own, did not put it at the top of the document but rather on the right margin, perpendicular to the text. The earliest Ottoman tughras were rather simple, written in black or gold ink. During the reign of Selim I ( r. 1512–20 ), blue ink outlined in gold or blue on a gold ground became fashionable, and fine spiral and arabesque designs filled the curves. Towards the...

Amman

Amman   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
731 words

...measuring 65.8×39.7 m was erected in the lower town in the 8th century (destr. 1924 ); according to the Palestinian geographer al-Muqaddasi, writing in 985, it was decorated with mosaic. It had a standard plan for the period: a prayer-hall with horseshoe arches running perpendicular to the south (qibla) wall and a courtyard built of fine limestone masonry to the north. A square minaret was added, probably in the 12th century. After earthquake damage in 747 and the transfer of the center of the Islamic caliphate from Syria to Iraq after 750, Amman's...

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