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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Mantineia, battles of

Mantineia, battles of (418)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...battles of ( 418 , 362 , and 207 bc ). These three battles spanned the whole development of Greek warfare from a typical hoplite battle to the appearance of catapults. The first was during the Peloponnesian wars and was fought between a largely Spartan and Tegeate army, and a combined army consisting largely of Mantineians, Argives, and Athenians. Having the larger army, the Spartan King Agis II attempted to cover the enemy overlap on his left by shifting his left wing outwards and plugging the gap with units from the right. But his orders...

Greek city-state wars

Greek city-state wars (395–362 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...city-state wars ( 395–362 bc ). Defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian wars ended the artificial order imposed on a normally fragmented Greece by the great alliances headed by Athens and Sparta . What followed was a chaotic period in which Sparta, Thebes , and a renascent Athens jostled for power, with Persia stirring the pot. Fear of any one state growing powerful enough to dominate the others is the key to understanding the shifting alliances. Thus fear of Sparta was essentially the cause of the Corinthian war ( 395–386 ), in which her former...

Greek historians

Greek historians   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of military experience, that is true of most military historians, and his supposed naivety may accurately reflect the unsophisticated nature of the warfare of his time. Thucydides ( ?460– c. 390 bc ) is very different, but he was contemporary with his main subject, the Peloponnesian wars , and too much can be made of his military experience, which only certainly amounted to one campaign. Despite the existence of far more documentary evidence, most of the evidence he used was also oral, and we should not assume that he checked it more carefully than ...

Disciplinary Views of War

Disciplinary Views of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., 1990. Maya Lin, et al. , Grounds for Remembering , 1995. Samuel Hynes , The Soldier's Tale. Bearing Witness to Modern War , 1997. Jay Winter Disciplinary Views Of War: Causes‐Of‐War Studies The causes of war have puzzled Western thinkers since Thucydides attributed the Peloponnesian War to fear of the growing power of Athens. Machiavelli thought that war was the natural order of things and fighting the first business of the prince. Immanuel Kant noted that states with republican regimes were more peaceful than other states, an insight that anticipated...

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