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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Damophon

Damophon   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
611 words

... from Messene. The only ancient author to mention him is Pausanias, who was impressed by his statues for the Peloponnesian towns of Messene , Aigion , Megalopolis and Lykosoura . Yet since Pausanias gave no dates, and the numerous inscriptions mentioning the sculptor and his family are also undated, Damophon ’s chronology must be inferred from the neo-Classical style of his surviving works. This points to the period when the Achaian League (to which all the cities above belonged) was at the height of its prosperity and engaged in an extensive building...

Ionia

Ionia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,191 words

... Izmir south to Bargyla. It included the cities of Miletos , Myous, Priene, Ephesos , Kolophon, Teos , Lebedos, Erythrai, Klazomenai, Phokaia and Smyrna, and the adjacent islands of Samos and Chios. Herodotus ( Histories I.cxlv–cxlviii) and Thucydides ( History of the Peloponnesian War I.xii) claimed that Greeks fleeing the Dorian invasion colonized the region in the 11th century bc , but excavators have discovered Late Bronze Age (13th century bc ) Mycenaean objects in the area, and Miletos may have been a Mycenaean trading port. There is evidence...

Delphi

Delphi   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
4,216 words
Illustration(s):
3

...that they had lost the structural function of their prototypes in early, wooden entablatures. In 548 bc the Archaic Temple of Apollo was destroyed by fire, and the Amphiktyonic League, which administered the sanctuary, reorganized it completely, doubling its area and demolishing any monuments, including the two Sikyonian buildings, that obstructed the new plan. The League then constructed a new Temple of Apollo ( c. 510 bc ; 2b) on a terrace retained on its south side by an impressive wall of curvilinear polygonal masonry. The temple was Doric and made...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
6,443 words
Illustration(s):
4

...saved Greece in the Persian wars, though he was no pro-Athenian propagandist and knew that this assessment would be unpopular. The Athenians incurred resentment by using their allies’ money for their building programme and by turning their defensive maritime league into an empire. In the Peloponnesian War against the Spartan alliance ( 431–404 bc ), recorded by Thucydides , the Athenians proved resilient, drawing on the loyalty of the democracies they had set up throughout their empire. But the war ended in Spartan victory, with the help of Persian...

Athens

Athens   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
17,145 words
Illustration(s):
15

...(b) Period of Peloponnesian War to Lykourgos . From 431 to 404 bc Athens was engaged in the debilitating Peloponnesian War against Sparta and its allies. Work ceased on the temples but continued on less costly civic buildings in the Agora . In the 420s bc a plague led to the foundation of a sanctuary of the healing god Asklepios on the south slopes of the Acropolis , though its remains—a Doric two-storey stoa and the foundations of a temple and altar—seem to date largely to the 4th century bc . Following their defeat in the Peloponnesian War, the...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
90,898 words
Illustration(s):
41

...dominant empires: Ptolemaic Egypt , Seleucid Syria and Antigonid Macedonia. While these contended for hegemony, however, lesser states attempted to assert their independence. The most successful of these were Bactria (now Afghanistan ) , Pergamon , the Aitolian League and Achaian League in mainland Greece , and later the non-Greek states of Pontus and Hasmonean Israel. In the west, Syracuse and Taras (now Taranto ) , which had never come under Macedonian control, maintained their power until conquered by Rome in 211 bc and 209 bc ...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
40,690 words
Illustration(s):
17

...with the plans of Pericles, declaring that he preferred to work for posterity. Zeuxis had an idea of aristocratic perfection that ill accorded with Athenian democracy but found justification in the circle of the statesman Alcibiades ( c. 450–404 bc ). The end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 bc marked a turning-point in painting; faith in the old institutions generally was weakened, and painters could no longer aspire to absolute truths in their work. From the beginning of the 4th century bc the Greeks in Asia Minor were particularly sensitive to...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...that it could be removed and replaced when worn. Similarly, Peloponnesian temples were generally equipped with a special access stairway at the front, to prevent the wearing down of the stepped base and reduce the expense of repairs. However, such stairs were also sometimes needed because the steps of the base were too high to be used with ease, and they had the further aesthetic advantage of drawing attention to the temple’s main façade. These access stairs became so typical a feature of Peloponnesian Doric that they were used even when a temple’s base was...

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