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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Mantineia, battles of

Mantineia, battles of (418)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...battles of ( 418 , 362 , and 207 bc ). These three battles spanned the whole development of Greek warfare from a typical hoplite battle to the appearance of catapults. The first was during the Peloponnesian wars and was fought between a largely Spartan and Tegeate army, and a combined army consisting largely of Mantineians, Argives, and Athenians. Having the larger army, the Spartan King Agis II attempted to cover the enemy overlap on his left by shifting his left wing outwards and plugging the gap with units from the right. But his orders...

Greek city-state wars

Greek city-state wars (395–362 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...city-state wars ( 395–362 bc ). Defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian wars ended the artificial order imposed on a normally fragmented Greece by the great alliances headed by Athens and Sparta . What followed was a chaotic period in which Sparta, Thebes , and a renascent Athens jostled for power, with Persia stirring the pot. Fear of any one state growing powerful enough to dominate the others is the key to understanding the shifting alliances. Thus fear of Sparta was essentially the cause of the Corinthian war ( 395–386 ), in which her former...

Greek historians

Greek historians   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of military experience, that is true of most military historians, and his supposed naivety may accurately reflect the unsophisticated nature of the warfare of his time. Thucydides ( ?460– c. 390 bc ) is very different, but he was contemporary with his main subject, the Peloponnesian wars , and too much can be made of his military experience, which only certainly amounted to one campaign. Despite the existence of far more documentary evidence, most of the evidence he used was also oral, and we should not assume that he checked it more carefully than ...

International Organization and Ending Conflicts

International Organization and Ending Conflicts   Reference library

Alistair D. Edgar

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,675 words

...by the work of Thucydides, Knutsen adds that he nonetheless borrowed stories from The Peloponnesian War and, like Thucydides and Livy, he believed firmly that the lessons of history could be employed as a valuable tool for the political education of state leaders ( Knutsen 1992 :33–40; Boucher 1998 :90–144). While there is agreement about the prominent role of Thucydides more generally in shaping the works of subsequent theorists, and especially of The Peloponnesian War as a central text of what later would become the Realist strand of international...

Feminist Contributions and Challenges to Peace Studies

Feminist Contributions and Challenges to Peace Studies   Reference library

Catia Cecilia Confortini

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,444 words

...but their organization continued and, after the war, took the name of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom ( WILPF ), which is now the oldest international women’s peace organization and one of the oldest peace organizations in the world. At the end of the war, the women protested the terms of the Versailles Treaty, anticipated that resentment over the terms of the treaty would eventually lead to another war, and supported the creation of the League of Nations ( Schott 1997 :78–79). The interwar years saw increased reflection on the importance...

Leadership and Foreign Policy Analysis

Leadership and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Thomas Preston

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,452 words

...was immoral. Thus, Wilson’s efforts to create the League of Nations took on the form of a great moral crusade. He was unable to compromise on any perceived moral issues and his conflict with Senate Majority Leader Lodge (who ultimately defeated Wilson’s efforts to bring the US into the organization) took the form of a renewed conflict with a “father-like” strict authoritarian figure. In the absence of such psychological baggage, a different president might have succeeded where Wilson failed regarding the League. Other well-known examples of psychoanalytic or...

Realism and Security

Realism and Security   Reference library

Stephen M. Walt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,705 words

...concept of “security” is central to the realist tradition. Indeed, one might argue that this narrow conception of “security” (i.e., protection against violent attack or coercion) has been inextricably linked to realist thought since its inception. In his famous history of the Peloponnesian War, for example, Thucydides traced its origins to the fear induced in Sparta by the growth of Athenian power ( 1996 :16). For Niccolo Machiavelli , writing in the Italian Renaissance, the Prince’s key object must be to preserve his position and the security of his realm in a...

Disciplinary Views of War

Disciplinary Views of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., 1990. Maya Lin, et al. , Grounds for Remembering , 1995. Samuel Hynes , The Soldier's Tale. Bearing Witness to Modern War , 1997. Jay Winter Disciplinary Views Of War: Causes‐Of‐War Studies The causes of war have puzzled Western thinkers since Thucydides attributed the Peloponnesian War to fear of the growing power of Athens. Machiavelli thought that war was the natural order of things and fighting the first business of the prince. Immanuel Kant noted that states with republican regimes were more peaceful than other states, an insight that anticipated...

Diplomacy

Diplomacy   Reference library

Paul Sharp

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,608 words

... 1954 ) – and curious: in terms, for example, of the use of local citizens ( proxenos ) to represent the interests of other cities, and the relative rarity of representatives with plenipotentiary powers ( Hamilton and Langhorne 1995 ). In addition, Thucydides’ account of the Peloponnesian Wars of the third century bce – especially in its seventeenth and twentieth century English translations – is sometimes presented as capturing all the dynamics of international relations and conflict about which one needs to know. Indeed, a particular account – the Melian...

The International Political Sociology of Empire

The International Political Sociology of Empire   Reference library

Alejandro Colás

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,670 words

...strategy, and war. Barkawi and Laffey ( 2006 ) carry out their own “retrieval of the imperial” in a critique of contemporary security studies, demonstrating how “the resistance of the weak profoundly shapes events and outcomes” in international conflicts, ranging from the Peloponnesian War, World War II, the Cold War, and the contemporary “War on Terror.” Incorporating and, where necessary, privileging the agency of the “subaltern” and the “peripheral,” Barkawi and Laffey argue, throws up more accurate accounts of these major conflicts. Thus, the 1962 ...

Jus ad Bellum

Jus ad Bellum   Reference library

Caron E. Gentry

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,230 words

...Persia,” and covered formal declaration of war, the respect for truces (especially during the Olympic Games), and that battles were only to “be fought during campaigning season (summer)” ( Bellamy 2006 :16). The classic tension again is witnessed as Bellamy argues that the Peloponnesian War caused many of these normative customs to break down and were replaced by “‘might is right,’” as exemplified in Thucydides’ Melian Dialogue ( Bellamy 2006 :16–17). Refuting the breakdown in customs, Plato argued that the “path to happiness lay in justice, [which was] a...

Empire and Order in International Relations and Security Studies

Empire and Order in International Relations and Security Studies   Reference library

Tarak Barkawi

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,165 words

...of security problematic was evident at each moment of putative foundation, that between the weak and the strong, or the conquered and their foreign rulers. Athens was a maritime empire, and its struggle to control subordinate cities is central to any account not only of the Peloponnesian War but of what Athens was as a political entity. The Melian dialogue arose precisely in this context of imperial hierarchy , as Athens sought to check Melian brigandage and demonstrate to subject cities the costs of resistance ( Garst 1989 :15). In IR Hobbes provides a...

International Negotiation in a Foreign Policy Context

International Negotiation in a Foreign Policy Context   Reference library

Michael J. Butler and Mark A. Boyer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,555 words

...(if not exclusively) by states using the classical diplomatic paradigm of designees arrayed around a negotiating table, ostensibly to tame the rougher edges of otherwise unrestrained anarchy ( Kremenyuk 2002 ). Even as seminal a treatise as Thucydides’ famous History of the Peloponnesian War can be interpreted as a commentary on the degree to which the ancient Greek city-states resorted to negotiation and mediation as well as the underlying motives for doing so ( Freymond 2002 ). In the absence of either a strong and coherent body of international law or an...

International Organization and Health/Disease

International Organization and Health/Disease   Reference library

Kelley Lee

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,321 words

...health cooperation. The Plague of Athens during the second year of the Peloponnesian War ( 430 bc ), the Black Death that swept through Europe in the 1340s, cholera epidemics during the Industrial Revolution, and the influenza pandemic after World War I, for example, all prompted efforts to strengthen collective action. The resultant institutional arrangements included the International Sanitary Conferences, the Office International d’Hygiène Publique, the Health Organization of the League of Nations, and various regional bodies. After World War II, international...

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