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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War   Reference library

Matt Simonton

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,420 words

...expertise, they soon afforded Athens a near-monopoly on the means of violence within the League. The Athenians transferred the League treasury from Delos to Athens and exacted tribute from their imperial subjects. (For overviews of the Athenian empire see Meiggs, 1972 ; and Kallet-Marx, 2008 . ) Athens’ naval, cash-based, increasingly democratic empire contrasted strongly with traditional Greek norms, and in particular with the model of Sparta's Peloponnesian League, in which largely oligarchic states contributed hoplite infantry forces rather than money...

Sanctions

Sanctions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,212 words

...by Athens during the Peloponnesian War in the fifth century b.c. , France organized a grain boycott against Britain during the Napoleonic Wars, and in the twentieth century naval blockades were instituted by belligerents in both world wars. During the Cold War, Western countries maintained an embargo on exports of strategic goods to the Soviet Union. However, the concept of multilateral economic sanctions as a means of ensuring “collective security” was introduced by the League of Nations in 1920 , and in spite of the failure of League sanctions against...

International Systems

International Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,187 words

...Systems . In a 1947 Princeton speech General George C. Marshall doubted “whether a man can think with full wisdom and with deep convictions regarding certain of the basic issues of today who has not at least reviewed in his mind the period of the Peloponnesian War and the fall of Athens”; he probably had in mind Thucydides ' time-defying claim to have written his history not for momentary popularity, but “for all time.” Indeed, Thucydides wished to discover an exact knowledge of the past “which (human nature being what it is) will, at some time...

Security

Security   Reference library

Lucas Kello

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,541 words

...in 1919 through the creation of a League of Nations whose central function was to oversee the peaceful resolution of disputes and, if necessary, to punish aggressors with sanctions or even armed force. Here, then, was an attempt to resolve the security dilemma by conceptual fiat. Because it defines security as peace itself, the doctrine of collective security holds that the outbreak of war imperils all nations in equal measure; thus, violence will be resisted uniformly. During the lifetime of the League, however, the peace concept was repeatedly...

War

War   Reference library

David Fisher

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,674 words

...That is the aim of the just-war tradition. [ See also Arab-Israeli Conflict ; Bosnian War ; Cold War ; Force, Use of ; Guerrilla Warfare ; Gulf War ; Iran-Iraq War ; Iraq, US Invasion of ; Just War Theory ; Kashmir, Conflict in ; Korean War ; Kosovo War ; Peloponnesian War ; Preemptive and Preventive War ; Realism ; Rwandan Genocide ; Spanish Civil War ; Vietnam War ; War Crimes ; War Crimes Tribunals ; Warfare, Rules of ; World War I ; and World War II . ] Bibliography Clausewitz, Karl von . On War . Translated by Michael Howard...

International Organization and Ending Conflicts

International Organization and Ending Conflicts   Reference library

Alistair D. Edgar

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,675 words

...by the work of Thucydides, Knutsen adds that he nonetheless borrowed stories from The Peloponnesian War and, like Thucydides and Livy, he believed firmly that the lessons of history could be employed as a valuable tool for the political education of state leaders ( Knutsen 1992 :33–40; Boucher 1998 :90–144). While there is agreement about the prominent role of Thucydides more generally in shaping the works of subsequent theorists, and especially of The Peloponnesian War as a central text of what later would become the Realist strand of international...

Feminist Contributions and Challenges to Peace Studies

Feminist Contributions and Challenges to Peace Studies   Reference library

Catia Cecilia Confortini

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,444 words

...but their organization continued and, after the war, took the name of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom ( WILPF ), which is now the oldest international women’s peace organization and one of the oldest peace organizations in the world. At the end of the war, the women protested the terms of the Versailles Treaty, anticipated that resentment over the terms of the treaty would eventually lead to another war, and supported the creation of the League of Nations ( Schott 1997 :78–79). The interwar years saw increased reflection on the importance...

Leadership and Foreign Policy Analysis

Leadership and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Thomas Preston

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,452 words

...was immoral. Thus, Wilson’s efforts to create the League of Nations took on the form of a great moral crusade. He was unable to compromise on any perceived moral issues and his conflict with Senate Majority Leader Lodge (who ultimately defeated Wilson’s efforts to bring the US into the organization) took the form of a renewed conflict with a “father-like” strict authoritarian figure. In the absence of such psychological baggage, a different president might have succeeded where Wilson failed regarding the League. Other well-known examples of psychoanalytic or...

Realism and Security

Realism and Security   Reference library

Stephen M. Walt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,705 words

...concept of “security” is central to the realist tradition. Indeed, one might argue that this narrow conception of “security” (i.e., protection against violent attack or coercion) has been inextricably linked to realist thought since its inception. In his famous history of the Peloponnesian War, for example, Thucydides traced its origins to the fear induced in Sparta by the growth of Athenian power ( 1996 :16). For Niccolo Machiavelli , writing in the Italian Renaissance, the Prince’s key object must be to preserve his position and the security of his realm in a...

Diplomacy

Diplomacy   Reference library

Paul Sharp

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,608 words

... 1954 ) – and curious: in terms, for example, of the use of local citizens ( proxenos ) to represent the interests of other cities, and the relative rarity of representatives with plenipotentiary powers ( Hamilton and Langhorne 1995 ). In addition, Thucydides’ account of the Peloponnesian Wars of the third century bce – especially in its seventeenth and twentieth century English translations – is sometimes presented as capturing all the dynamics of international relations and conflict about which one needs to know. Indeed, a particular account – the Melian...

The International Political Sociology of Empire

The International Political Sociology of Empire   Reference library

Alejandro Colás

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,670 words

...strategy, and war. Barkawi and Laffey ( 2006 ) carry out their own “retrieval of the imperial” in a critique of contemporary security studies, demonstrating how “the resistance of the weak profoundly shapes events and outcomes” in international conflicts, ranging from the Peloponnesian War, World War II, the Cold War, and the contemporary “War on Terror.” Incorporating and, where necessary, privileging the agency of the “subaltern” and the “peripheral,” Barkawi and Laffey argue, throws up more accurate accounts of these major conflicts. Thus, the 1962 ...

Jus ad Bellum

Jus ad Bellum   Reference library

Caron E. Gentry

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,230 words

...Persia,” and covered formal declaration of war, the respect for truces (especially during the Olympic Games), and that battles were only to “be fought during campaigning season (summer)” ( Bellamy 2006 :16). The classic tension again is witnessed as Bellamy argues that the Peloponnesian War caused many of these normative customs to break down and were replaced by “‘might is right,’” as exemplified in Thucydides’ Melian Dialogue ( Bellamy 2006 :16–17). Refuting the breakdown in customs, Plato argued that the “path to happiness lay in justice, [which was] a...

Empire and Order in International Relations and Security Studies

Empire and Order in International Relations and Security Studies   Reference library

Tarak Barkawi

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,165 words

...of security problematic was evident at each moment of putative foundation, that between the weak and the strong, or the conquered and their foreign rulers. Athens was a maritime empire, and its struggle to control subordinate cities is central to any account not only of the Peloponnesian War but of what Athens was as a political entity. The Melian dialogue arose precisely in this context of imperial hierarchy , as Athens sought to check Melian brigandage and demonstrate to subject cities the costs of resistance ( Garst 1989 :15). In IR Hobbes provides a...

International Negotiation in a Foreign Policy Context

International Negotiation in a Foreign Policy Context   Reference library

Michael J. Butler and Mark A. Boyer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,555 words

...(if not exclusively) by states using the classical diplomatic paradigm of designees arrayed around a negotiating table, ostensibly to tame the rougher edges of otherwise unrestrained anarchy ( Kremenyuk 2002 ). Even as seminal a treatise as Thucydides’ famous History of the Peloponnesian War can be interpreted as a commentary on the degree to which the ancient Greek city-states resorted to negotiation and mediation as well as the underlying motives for doing so ( Freymond 2002 ). In the absence of either a strong and coherent body of international law or an...

International Organization and Health/Disease

International Organization and Health/Disease   Reference library

Kelley Lee

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,321 words

...health cooperation. The Plague of Athens during the second year of the Peloponnesian War ( 430 bc ), the Black Death that swept through Europe in the 1340s, cholera epidemics during the Industrial Revolution, and the influenza pandemic after World War I, for example, all prompted efforts to strengthen collective action. The resultant institutional arrangements included the International Sanitary Conferences, the Office International d’Hygiène Publique, the Health Organization of the League of Nations, and various regional bodies. After World War II, international...

Cumulative Knowledge, Science, and the Emergence of International Relations

Cumulative Knowledge, Science, and the Emergence of International Relations   Reference library

Torbjørn L. Knutsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,555 words

...Past as Prologue How far back should we go? Some authors draw the lineage as far back as Thucydides’s History of the Peloponnesian Wars (written about 400 bc ) ( Lebow, 2008 ; Nye, 2008 ). They demonstrate that key characteristics of realism—concepts like fear, rivalry, and balance of power—is found as far back as in ancient Greece. Also, they point out that Thucydides did not merely pose questions about the causes of the Peloponnesian War, but that he had bigger ambitions than that: he wanted to produce knowledge about war in general. He wanted to...

Power Transition Theory and the Essence of Revisionism

Power Transition Theory and the Essence of Revisionism   Reference library

Jonathan M. DiCicco

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
15,333 words

...(PTT) tradition has much to offer analysts who see an impending power shift as the central tension driving 21st-century international relations—and yet, such analysts often look elsewhere for inspiration and insight. For example, citing the historical precedent of the Peloponnesian War and Thucydides’ reflections on its causes, Graham Allison ( 2012 , 2014 , 2015a , 2015b ) has made a project of warning U.S. public officials about the correspondence between the Athens-Sparta confrontation and a potential China-United States confrontation. Allison,...

Genocide and Religion in Times of War

Genocide and Religion in Times of War   Reference library

Manus I. Midlarsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,975 words

...(2000). From voting to violence: Democratization and nationalist conflict . New York, NY: Norton. Straus, S. (2015). Making and unmaking nations: War, leadership, and genocide in modern Africa . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Thucydides . (1954). History of the Peloponnesian War (rev. ed.). Baltimore, MD: Penguin. Tocqueville, A. (1955). The old régime and the French Revolution ( S. Gilbert , Trans.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Toft, M. D. (2007). Getting religion? The puzzling case of Islam and civil war. International Security , 31 (4)...

Politics

Politics: c. 3100 BCE - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...of the Medes, and establishes the first Persian empire Cyrus the Great ( c. 590–529 bc ) World Encyclopedia 1 6th century BCE Dynasties and royalty Asia Central Asia Iran (Persia) c. 550 BCE 550 BCE The city-states of the Peloponnese unite in a defensive league under Spartan leadership Peloponnesian League Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World 1 6th century BCE Europe Greece c. 550 BCE 550 BCE An Etruscan dynasty rules in Rome and Etruscan influence is now dominant throughout central Italy Etruscans A Dictionary of World History 2 6th century BCE...

Conquest and colonization

Conquest and colonization: c. 1520 BCE - 2005  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...empires in Africa Africa Asia South Asia India (the subcontinent) India (republic) Europe Empires 1920 1920 May - League of Nations mandates give Britain responsibility for Iraq, Transjordan and Palestine Mandate A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 First World War 20th century Politics War British empire European empires from 1415 Mesopotamia Asia West Asia Iraq Palestine and Israel Europe Empires Wars since 1900 1920 1920 May - League of Nations mandates give France responsibility for Syria and Lebanon Mandate A Dictionary of Contemporary World...

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